Do not travel to Iran due to the risk of arbitrary arrest and detention of U.S. citizens.
There is a very high risk of arrest and detention of U.S. citizens in Iran, particularly U.S.-Iranian dual nationals.
Iranian authorities continue to unjustly detain and imprison U.S. citizens, including students, journalists, business travelers, and academics, on charges including espionage and posing a threat to national security. U.S.-Iranian dual nationals are particularly susceptible to arrest for these charges. Consular access to detained U.S. citizens is often denied.
The U.S. government does not have diplomatic or consular relations with Iran. The U.S. government is unable to provide emergency services to U.S. citizens in Iran. Switzerland serves as the protecting power for U.S. citizens in Iran, providing limited emergency services. The Iranian government routinely delays or denies Swiss officials access to detained U.S. citizens.
Due to risks to civil aviation operating within or in the vicinity of Iran, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has issued a Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) and/or a Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR). For more information U.S. citizens should consult the Federal Aviation Administration’s Prohibitions, Restrictions and Notices.
Read the Safety and Security section on the Country Information page.
If you decide to travel to Iran:
Iran is not party to the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption (Hague Adoption Convention). Intercountry adoptions of children from non-Hague countries are processed in accordance with 8 Code of Federal Regulations, Section 204.3 as it relates to orphans as defined under the Immigration and Nationality Act, Section 101(b)(1)(F).
Note: In accordance with current Iranian practice, acquiring legal custody/guardianship by parents residing outside of Iran is not possible. Prospective adoptive parents must be Iranian citizens and fulfill all other required conditions for acquiring legal custody/guardianship. Applications must be submitted to the Iranian Welfare Organization (IWO). Recent cases indicate that applications from close family members have the greatest chance of being approved. Only the IWO and an appropriate court can determine whether each case, based on its own merits, is in the best interests of the child. Muslim children are only eligible for legal custody/guardianship by Muslim parents. Christian children are only eligible for legal custody/guardianship by Christian parents. Before a legal custody/guardianship is granted, strict procedures are applied in order to protect the children and to establish the suitability of prospective adoptive parents, including a six month probationary period during which time at least one of the parents needs to be residing in Iran with the child. In order to leave Iran with the child during the probationary period, the prospective adoptive parent would need to get explicit permission from the public prosecutor. The process is complicated and time-consuming. After a child has been placed with a family, Iranian authorities will perform periodic checks to ensure the child's physical and mental well-being.
The United States does not have diplomatic relations with the Islamic Republic of Iran and therefore cannot provide protection or routine consular services to U.S. citizens in Iran. The Swiss government, acting through its Embassy in Tehran, serves as the protecting power for U.S. interests in Iran and can provide limited consular services to U.S. citizens. (See Embassy of Switzerland – Foreign Interests Section.)
To bring an adopted child to the United States from Iran, you must meet certain suitability and eligibility requirements. USCIS determines who is suitable and eligible to adopt a child from another country and bring that child to live in the United States under U.S. immigration law.
Additionally, a child must meet the definition of an orphan under U.S. immigration law in order to be eligible to immigrate to the United States with an IR-3 or IR-4 immigrant visa.
In addition to U.S. immigration requirements, you must also meet the following requirements in order to adopt a child from Iran:
Iranian law allows a regional Family Affairs Branch Committee to waive requirements such as residency or age under exceptional circumstances.
In addition to U.S. immigration requirements, Iran has specific requirements that a child must meet in order to be eligible for legal guardianship:
Caution: Prospective adoptive parents should be aware that not all children in orphanages or children’s homes are adoptable. In many countries, including Iran, birth parents place their child(ren) temporarily in an orphanage or children’s home due to financial or other hardship, intending that the child return home when this becomes possible. In such cases, the birth parent(s) have rarely relinquished their parental rights or consented to their child(ren)’s adoption.
Iranian Welfare Organization (Edareh Beh Zistiti, Bakhshe Farzand Khandegi)
Address: 188 Karimkhan St., Tehran
The process for adopting a child from Iran generally includes the following steps:
The recommended first step in adopting a child from Iran is to decide whether or not to use a licensed adoption service provider in the United States that can help you with your adoption. Adoption service providers must be licensed by the U.S. state in which they operate. The Department of State provides information on selecting an adoption service provider on its website.
There are no formal adoption agencies in Iran assisting individuals in the Iranian guardianship process. Iranian NGOs such as "The Society for Protecting the Rights of the Child" may be helpful resources.
In order to obtain legal custody/guardianship of a child from Iran, you will need to meet the requirements of the Government of Iran and U.S. Immigration law. You must submit an application to be found eligible to obtain legal custody/guardianship with the IWO of Iran.
To meet U.S. immigration requirements, you should file an I-600A, Application for Advance Processing of an Orphan Petition with U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services to be found eligible and suitable to adopt.
If you are eligible to adopt, and a child is available for intercountry adoption, your adoption service provider, or an authorized entity in Iran will provide you with a referral. Each family must decide for itself whether or not it will be able to meet the needs of and provide a permanent home for a particular child.
The child must be eligible to be adopted according to Iran’s requirements, as described in the Who Can Be Adopted section. The child must also meet the definition of orphan under U.S. immigration law.
The process for gaining legal custody in Iran generally includes the following:
NOTE:Additional documents may be requested.
After you gain legal custody/guardianship in Iran, the Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services must determine whether the child meets the definition of orphan under U.S. immigration law. You will need to file a Form I-600, Petition to Classify Orphan as an Immediate Relative.
Once you have obtained legal custody/guardianship of the child, you need to apply for several documents for your child before you can apply for a U.S. immigrant visa to bring your child home to the United States:
After you have gained legal custody/guardianship in Iran, you will first need to apply for a new birth certificate (shenasnameh) for your child. Your name will be added to the new birth certificate. Your guardian child's name should also be included into your “shenasnameh(s)” as your child, so that you can later apply for a passport.
How to obtain a Passport for your child in Iran
Your guardian child is not yet a U.S. citizen, so he/she will need a travel document or Passport from Iran. He/she can be included in one of the adoptive parent's Iranian passport. The form and passport file can be obtained at the electronic service desks of disciplinary forces (Police +10) or postal centers. The addresses for passport offices in the greater Tehran area are:
U.S. Immigrant Visa
After you obtain the new birth certificate and passport for your child and you have filed Form I-600, Petition to Classify Orphan as an Immediate Relative, you will need to visit the U.S. Embassy either in Ankara, Turkey, Yerevan, Armenia, or Abu Dhabi, UAE for final review and approval of the child’s I-600 petition and to obtain a visa for the child. The immigrant visa allows your child to travel home with you. In order to obtain an immigrant visa, you will need to have your adopted child undergo a medical examination by an authorized panel physicians. You should provide the panel physician with vaccination or other medical records to help the panel physicians determine your guardian child's medical condition. The cost of the medical report is $150-200 depending on the child's health. As part of the process for adjudicating the immigrant visa, the Consular Officer must be provided the Panel Physician’s medical report on the child.
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) 2007 Tuberculosis Technical Instructions (TB TIs) for the TB medical screening apply to all immigrant visa applicants, including adopted children. The 2007 TB TIs include new requirements that affect the pace at which some adoption cases can be concluded. Please visit the CDC's website at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dq/panel_2007.htm for further information regarding the 2007 “Technical Instructions for Tuberculosis Screening and Treatment for Panel Physicians”.
The Iranian court may not grant legal custody/guardianship before the six month probationary period is finalized. It is not possible to issue an immigrant visa to an applicant without a court decree that grants custody. The initial court decree, which grants the six month probationary period, does not serve as the final custody decree for immigration purposes, even if it grants full custody to the adoptive parents. In some cases, the judges may issue a decree lifting the six month probationary period. You, as the guardian parents, must specifically request this waiver from the judge if you wish to immigrate with the child to the U.S. before the six month period is completed.
Documentation about the child's background and primary evidence of abandonment is also required for the visa adjudication. If you gain custody of the child from an orphanage, you will need to provide an official report from the Iranian Welfare Organization. The report must give detailed information about the child's background and parents' whereabouts, if known. If yours is a private adoption, you will need to provide similar documentation about the child's background. This documentation should be obtained from the existing parent of the child. The orphan's existing parent must give his/her consent for the adoption of the child and must give a notarized statement. This document must state that he/she is unconditionally forsaken all parental rights, obligations and claims to the child, as well as all control over the physical custody of the child. In addition to the existing parent's statement, you should also provide a document from the prosecuting attorney agreeing to the immigration of the child to U.S. with the guardian parent to obtain a full and final adoption.
For adoptions finalized abroad: Pursuant to the provisions of the Child Citizenship Act of 2000, children who enter the U.S. on an IR-3 or IH-3 immigrant visa automatically acquire U.S. citizenship upon entry to the United States for the purpose of lawful permanent residence.
For adoptions finalized in the United States: Pursuant to the provisions of the Child Citizenship Act of 2000, children who enter the United States on an IR-4 or IH-4 immigrant visa automatically acquire U.S. citizenship when a court in the United States issues the final adoption decree.
*Please be aware that if your child did not qualify to become a citizen upon entry to the United States, it is very important that you take the steps necessary so that your child does qualify as soon as possible. Failure to obtain citizenship for your child can impact many areas of his/her life including family travel, eligibility for education and education grants, and voting.
Read more about the Child Citizenship Act of 2000
U.S. citizens are required by law to enter and depart the United States on a valid U.S. passport. Only the U.S. Department of State has the authority to grant, issue, or verify U.S. passports.
Getting or renewing a passport is easy. The Passport Application Wizard will help you determine which passport form you need, help you to complete the form online, estimate your payment, and generate the form for you to print—all in one place.
In addition to a U.S. passport, you also need to obtain a visa. A visa is an official document issued by a foreign country that formally allows you to visit. Where required, visas are attached to your passport and allow you to enter a foreign nation. To find information about obtaining a visa for Iran, see the Department of State’s Country Specific Information.
Before you travel, it's always a good practice to investigate the local conditions, laws, political landscape, and culture of the country. The State Department is a good place to start.
The Department of State provides Country Specific Information for every country of the world about various issues, including the health conditions, crime, unusual currency or entry requirements, and any areas of instability.
When traveling during the adoption process, we encourage you to register your trip with the Department of State. Travel registration makes it possible to contact you if necessary. Whether there’s a family emergency in the United States, or a crisis in COUNTRY registration assists the U.S. Embassy or Consulate in reaching you.
Registration is free and can be done online.
Post-Adoption/Post-Placement Reporting Requirements
We strongly urge you to comply with and complete all Iranian post-adoption requirements in a timely manner. Your adoption agency may be able to help you with this process. Your cooperation will contribute to that country's history of positive experiences with American parents.
Post Adoption Resources
Many adoptive parents find it important to find support after the adoption. Take advantage of all the resources available to your family -- whether it’s another adoptive family, a support group, an advocacy organization, or your religious or community services.
Here are some good places to start your support group search:
Note: Inclusion of non-U.S. Government links does not imply endorsement of contents.
U.S. Embassy in Ankara, Turkey:
American Embassy Ankara
110 Ataturk Blvd.
06100 Ankara, Turkey
Phone: 90-312-455 5555
Fax: 90-312-468 6103
Iran Adoption Authority
Iranian Welfare Organization
(Edareh Beh Zistiti, Bakhshe Farzand Khandegi)
Address: 188 Karimkhan St., Tehran
Embassy of Iran
Address: 2209 Wisconsin Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20007
Tel: (202) 965-4990
Fax: (202) 965-1073
Office of Children's Issues
U.S. Department of State
SA-17, 9th Floor
Washington, DC 20522-1709
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS)
For questions about immigration procedures, call the National Customer Service Center (NCSC) 1-800-375-5283 (TTY 1-800-767-1833)
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