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SwedenOfficial Name: Sweden
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Hague Adoption Convention Country? Yes
Hague Convention Information
Sweden is party to the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption (Hague Adoption Convention). Intercountry adoption processing in Hague countries is done in accordance with the requirements of the Convention; the U.S. implementing legislation, the Intercountry Adoption Act of 2000 (IAA); and the IAA’s implementing regulations, as well as the implementing legislation and regulations of the child’s country of origin.
Sweden is not generally considered a country of origin in intercountry adoption. There are few children eligible for adoption in Sweden. There is no national adoption waiting list system in Sweden; each municipality is individually responsible for finding homes for any child residing in its respective area. Most intercountry adoptions in Sweden are by legal residents of Sweden who adopt in third countries.
While legally possible, intercountry adoption of a Swedish orphan by foreigners is unlikely. A child residing in Sweden could be adopted to another country ONLY in the case that the foreign prospective adoptive parents were either relatives or other persons with pre-existing ties to the child. In either case, the relevant municipality would identify the child eligible for adoption before the prospective adoptive parents would initiate adoption proceedings in the receiving country.
No Swedish orphans have received U.S. immigrant visas in the past five fiscal years. The information provided is intended primarily to assist in rare adoption cases from Sweden in which a Swedish child is adopted by relatives in the United States or by person(s) in the United States with other strong ties to the child, as well as adoptions from third countries by Americans living in Sweden.
Who Can Adopt
In addition to the U.S. requirements, Sweden requires prospective adoptive parents to meet the following Swedish requirements in order to adopt a child:
RESIDENCY REQUIREMENTS: Adoptive parents must
be Swedish citizens or legal permanent residents of Sweden in
order to adopt in Sweden or from a third county
AGE REQUIREMENTS: Any man or woman 25 years
old or older, whether single or married, may adopt with the
permission of the court. Persons ages 18-25 may also adopt if
the adoption involves a related child, the biological or
adoptive child of a spouse, or if special circumstances
exist. The Swedish Social Services recommend that prospective
adoptive parents should not be older than 42 when they submit
an application for consent to adopt, but the law does not
provide a maximum age.
Spouses must adopt jointly. However, one of the
spouses may adopt a child separately when the other spouse’s
whereabouts are unknown or is suffering from a serious mental
illness. One spouse may also, with the consent of the other
spouse, adopt that spouse’s child. A single person may also
adopt a child, but common-law spouses may not adopt jointly.
Two persons of the same sex can adopt jointly if they live
together as registered partners or as a married couple.
However, many countries of origin do not allow adoption under
these circumstances, which may limit the prospective adoptive
OTHER REQUIREMENTS: All prospective adoptive
parents residing in, or who are citizens of, Sweden must
receive consent to adopt from the local Social Welfare
Committee, which is based on a thorough investigation and home
study where particular attention is given to the prospective
adoptive parents’ knowledge and understanding of how to parent
an adopted child, their age, health, employment, criminal
background, personal qualities and social network. The
consent is valid for two years.
In addition, all such prospective adoptive parents must take part in a parental preparation course assigned by the municipality where they reside. This course must be completed in order for the investigation/home study to be initiated. The cost of the course varies but is approximately 2000 SEK = $250.
If non-residents of Sweden seek adoption of a related child residing in Sweden, the Social Welfare Committee in the area where the child is residing would conduct an investigation to determine if the adoption would be in the best interest of the child. The prospective adoptive parents would be evaluated by the appropriate authorities in their country of residence – in this case the United States.
- RESIDENCY REQUIREMENTS: Adoptive parents must be Swedish citizens or legal permanent residents of Sweden in order to adopt in Sweden or from a third county
Who Can Be Adopted
Because Sweden is party to The Hague Adoption Convention, children from Sweden must meet the requirements of the Convention in order to be eligible for adoption. For example, the adoption may take place only if the competent authorities of Sweden have determined that placement of the child within Sweden has been given due consideration and that an intercountry adoption is in the child’s best interests. In addition to Sweden’s requirements, a child must meet the definition of Convention adoptee to be eligible for an immigrant visa that will allow you to bring him or her to the United States.
For specific requirements under Swedish adoption law, please contact Sweden’s Adoption Authority listed under the contact section of this flyer.
How To Adopt
WARNING: Sweden is party to the Hague Adoption Convention. Do not adopt or obtain legal custody of a child in Sweden before a U.S. consular officer issues an “Article 5 Letter” in the case. Read on for more information.
Sweden’s Adoption Authority
Swedish Intercountry Adoptions Authority (MIA)
Ministry of Health and Social Affairs
101 26 Stockholm
Tel: +46 (8) 54555680
Fax: +46 (8) 650 4110
Note: Most of the following information refers to the process of adopting from Sweden as country of origin, and would be used only in rare adoption cases from Sweden. Contact the MIA for more information on the process of adopting a child from a third country to Sweden.
Because Sweden is party to The Hague Adoption Convention, adopting from Sweden must follow a specific process designed to meet the Convention’s requirements. A brief summary of the Convention adoption process is given below. You must complete these steps in the following order so that your adoption meets all necessary legal requirements. Adoptions completed out of order may result in the child not being eligible for an immigrant visa to the United States.
- Choose a U.S. accredited or approved adoption service provider
- Apply to USCIS to be found eligible to adopt
- Be matched with a child by authorities in Sweden.
- Apply to USCIS for the child to be found eligible for immigration to the United States and receive U.S. agreement to proceed with the adoption
- Adopt or Gain Legal Custody of child in Sweden.
- Obtain a U.S. immigrant visa for your child and bring your child home
Choose a U.S. Accredited or Approved Adoption Service
The recommended first step in adopting a child from Sweden is to select an adoption service provider in the United States that has been accredited or approved to provide services to U.S. citizens in Convention cases. Only accredited or approved adoption services providers may act as the primary provider in your case. The primary adoption service provider is responsible for ensuring that all adoption services in the case are done in accordance with the Hague Adoption Convention and U.S. laws and regulations. Learn more about Agency Accreditation
Apply to USCIS to be Found Eligible to Adopt:
After you choose an accredited or approved adoption service provider, you must apply to be found eligible to adopt by the responsible U.S. government agency, the Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), by submitting Form I-800A. Read more about Eligibility Requirements.
Once USCIS determines that you are “eligible” and “suited” to adopt by approving the Form I-800A, your adoption service provider will provide your approval notice, home study, and any other required information to the adoption authority in Sweden as part of your adoption dossier. Sweden’s adoption authority will review your application to determine whether you are also eligible to adopt under Swedish law.
Be Matched with a Child by in Sweden:
If both the United States and Sweden determine that you are eligible to adopt, and the municipality in Sweden has determined that a child is available for adoption and that intercountry adoption is in that child’s best interests, the municipal authority in Sweden may provide you with a referral for a child. The referral is a proposed match between you and a specific child based on a review of your dossier and the needs of a specific child in Sweden. The authority in Sweden will provide a background study and other information, if available, about the child to help you decide whether to accept the referral or not. Each family must decide for itself whether or not it will be able to meet the needs and provide a permanent home for a particular child. If you accept the referral, the adoption service provider communicates that to the authority in Sweden. Learn more about this critical decision.
Apply to USCIS for the Child to be Found Eligible for
Immigration to the United States and Receive U.S. Agreement
to Proceed with the Adoption:
After you accept a match with a child, you will apply to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) for provisional approval for the child to immigrate to the United States (Form I-800). USCIS will make a provisional determination as to whether the child meets the definition of a Convention Adoptee and will be eligible to enter the United States and reside permanently as an immigrant.
After provisional approval of Form I-800, your adoption service provider or you will submit a visa application to the Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy in Stockholm, Sweden, that is responsible for issuing immigrant visas to children from Sweden. A consular officer will review the Form I-800 and the visa application for possible visa ineligibilities and advise you of options for the waiver of any noted ineligibilities.
WARNING: The consular officer will send a letter (referred to as an “Article 5 Letter”) to the Swedish authority in any intercountry adoption involving U.S. citizen parents and a child from Sweden where all Convention requirements are met and the consular officer determines that the child appears eligible to immigrate to the United States. This letter will inform the Swedish authority that the parents are eligible and suited to adopt, that all indications are that the child may enter and reside permanently in the United States, and that the U.S. Central Authority agrees that the adoption may proceed.
Do not attempt to adopt or obtain custody of a child in Sweden before a U.S. consular officer issues the Article 5 Letter in any adoption case.
Remember: The consular officer will make a final decision about a child’s eligibility for an immigrant visa later in the adoption process.
Adopt or Gain Legal Custody of Child from Sweden:
Remember: Before you adopt (or gain legal custody of) a child from Sweden, you must have completed the above four steps. Only after completing these steps, can you proceed to finalize the adoption or grant of custody for the purposes of adoption from Sweden.
The process for finalizing the adoption or gaining legal custody in Sweden generally includes the following:
ROLE OF THE ADOPTION AUTHORITY: The
Swedish Intercountry Adoptions Authority (MIA) under the
Ministry of Health and Social Affairs is the Central
Authority under the 1993 Hague Convention on Protection of
Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry
Adoption. MIA is responsible for maintaining a list of
authorized adoption agencies in Sweden. They consider
requests for authorization and monitor the performance of
the authorized adoption agencies. Furthermore, in cases in
which prospective adoptive parents seek to adopt a
specific child (e.g. a relative), and thus a special
reason exists to adopt without the intermediation of an
authorized agency, MIA must ultimately consider whether
the procedure is acceptable under Swedish law.,
Note: MIA's role as Central Authority is relevant only to intercountry adoptions to Sweden from a third country of origin. The Social Welfare Committee in the municipality of the child's residence in Sweden is the competent authority in the case of adoption of a Swedish child.
ROLE OF THE COURT: The final adoption of a relative child from Sweden to the U.S. will need to take place in a U.S. court. A Swedish court does not have authority to decide on an adoption from Sweden. The Social Welfare Committee in the municipality where the child resides will determine if the child should be adopted or not.
For adoption cases in which the parents reside in Sweden, the adoption decree is issued by the local District Court (Tingsrätt, www.dom.se). Decrees are not available in English. At this point the legal relationship between adoptive parents and adopted child is equal to the relationship between biological parents and children. An adoption in Sweden is not reversible.
When the adoptive parents are residing in Sweden, or are Swedish citizens, the District Court will automatically inform the Swedish population registry, maintained by the Swedish Tax Agency, of the adoption and you may order a new birth certificate from them: www.skatteverket.se. Birth certificates (Personbevis) are available in English. Please make sure that it is signed by an official and carries the stamp of the Agency.
ROLE OF ADOPTION AGENCIES: A list of Swedish adoption agencies authorized to provide adoption services in third countries is available at www.mia.eu .
ADOPTION APPLICATION: For prospective adoptive parents residing in Sweden, the Swedish Intercountry Adoptions Authority web site www.mia.eu has detailed information about Swedish adoption law, policy and procedures. Information is provided in both Swedish and English .
TIME FRAME: The intercountry adoption
process of a child from a third country to Sweden can take
from two to four years from when the Swedish authorities
approve the application of the adoptive parents until the
parents receive the child. There is no information
available on an estimated timeframe when adopting a
related child from Sweden to the United States as it very
ADOPTION FEES: In the adoption services contract that you sign at the beginning of the adoption process, your agency will itemize the fees and estimated expenses related to your adoption process.
Some of the fees specifically associated with adopting to Sweden from a third country include:
Prospective adoptive parents can expect to pay from approximately 80 000 – 200 000 SEK, approximately US $10,000 to $23,000 for adoption services, including the cost for the trip to pick up the child and return to Sweden. There are no government fees. Most parents can qualify for a Swedish government grant of approximately SEK 40 000, approximately US $5,000, when they return with the child to Sweden.
DOCUMENTS REQUIRED: A list of documents needed to apply for adoption as a Swedish resident/citizen can be found at www.mia.eu .
Note: Additional documents may be requested.
AUTHENTICATION OF DOCUMENTS: The United States and Sweden are parties to the Hague Apostille Convention. U.S. public documents may be authenticated with Apostilles by the appropriate U.S. Competent Authority
- ROLE OF THE ADOPTION AUTHORITY: The Swedish Intercountry Adoptions Authority (MIA) under the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs is the Central Authority under the 1993 Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption. MIA is responsible for maintaining a list of authorized adoption agencies in Sweden. They consider requests for authorization and monitor the performance of the authorized adoption agencies. Furthermore, in cases in which prospective adoptive parents seek to adopt a specific child (e.g. a relative), and thus a special reason exists to adopt without the intermediation of an authorized agency, MIA must ultimately consider whether the procedure is acceptable under Swedish law.,
Obtain an Immigrant Visa for your Child and Bring Your
Now that your adoption is complete (or you have obtained legal custody of the child for the purpose of adopting the child in the United States), there are a few more steps to take before you can head home. Specifically, you need to apply for three documents before your child can travel to the United States:
When adopting a relative child from Sweden:Since the adoption will be finalized in the United States, you cannot obtain a new birth certificate in Sweden. You will receive documentation from the Social Welfare Committee giving consent to the adoption of the child, and based on that the child will be allowed to leave Sweden for final adoption in the U.S.
When residing in Sweden and adopting a child from Sweden or from a third country: Swedish birth certificates, so-called Personbevis, are issued by the Swedish Tax Agency (Skatteverket, www.skatteverket.se). When the parents are residing in Sweden, or are Swedish citizens, the District Court will automatically inform the Tax Agency when the adoption is final to update the child's information. Birth certificates (Personbevis) are available in English. Please make sure that it is signed by an official and carries the stamp of the Agency.
Your child is not yet a U.S. citizen, so he/she will need a travel document or passport from Sweden.
Swedish passports are issued by the Swedish police. Applications are submitted at your local police station. For application procedures, please see the Swedish police website www.polisen.se.
U.S. Immigrant Visa
After you obtain the new birth certificate and passport for your child, you also need to finalize your application for a U.S. visa for your child from the U.S. Consulate General in Stockholm, Sweden. After the adoption (or custody for purpose of adoption) is granted, visit the U.S. Consulate General for final review of the case, issuance of a U.S. Hague Adoption Certificate or Hague Custody Certificate, final approval of Form I-800, and to obtain your child’s immigrant visa. This immigrant visa allows your child to travel home with you. As part of this process, the consular officer must be provided the “Panel Physician’s” medical report on the child if it was not provided during the provisional approval stage. Read more about the Medical Examination.
Child Citizenship Act
For adoptions finalized abroad prior to the child’s entry into the United States : A child will acquire U.S. citizenship upon entry into the United States if the adoption was finalized prior to entry and the child otherwise meets the requirements of the Child Citizenship Act of 2000.
For adoptions to be finalized in the United States :An adoption will need to be completed following your child’s entry into the United States for the child to acquire U.S. citizenship.
*Please be aware that if your child did not qualify to become a citizen upon entry to the United States, it is very important that you take the steps necessary so that your child does qualify as soon as possible. Failure to obtain citizenship for your child can impact many areas of his/her life including family travel, eligibility for education and education grants, and voting. Read more about the Child Citizenship Act of 2000.
POST-ADOPTION/POST-PLACEMENT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS
Applying for Your U.S. Passport
A valid U.S. passport is required to enter and leave Sweden. Only the U.S. Department of State has the authority to grant, issue, or verify U.S. passports.
Getting or renewing a passport is easy. The Passport Application Wizard will help you determine which passport form you need, help you to complete the form online, estimate your payment, and generate the form for you to print-all in one place.
Obtaining Your Visa
In addition to a U.S. passport, you may also need to obtain a visa. A visa is an official document issued by a foreign country that formally allows you to visit. Where required, visas are attached to your passport and allow you to enter a foreign nation. To find information about traveling to Sweden, see the Department of State's Sweden Specific Information.Staying Safe on Your Trip
Before you travel, it is always a good practice to investigate the local conditions, laws, political landscape, and culture of the country. The Department of State provides Country Specific Information for every country of the world about various issues, including the health conditions, crime, unusual currency or entry requirements, and any areas of instability.
Staying in Touch on Your Trip
When traveling during the adoption process, we encourage you to enroll with the Department of State. Enrollment makes it possible to contact you if necessary. Whether there is a family emergency in the United States or a crisis in Sweden, enrollment assists the U.S. Embassy or Consulate in reaching you.
Enrollment is free and can be done online via the Smart Traveler Enrollment Program (STEP).
Many adoptive parents find it important to find support after the adoption. There are many public and private nonprofit post-adoption services available for children and their families. There are also numerous adoptive family support groups and adoptee organizations active in the United States that provide a network of options for adoptees who seek out other adoptees from the same country of origin. Take advantage of all the resources available to your family, whether it is another adoptive family, a support group, an advocacy organization, or your religious or community services.
Here are some places to start your support group search:
Note: Inclusion of non-U.S. Government links does not imply endorsement of contents.
Embassy of Sweden
1501 M. Street N.W., Suite 900
Washington, D.C. 20005-1702
Tel: +1-202-467 2600
Fax: +1-202-467 2699
Office of Children’s Issues
U.S. Department of State
SA-17, 9th Floor
Washington, DC 20522-1709
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS)
For questions about immigration procedures:
National Customer Service Center (NCSC)
Tel: 1-800-375-5283 (TTY 1-800-767-1833)
For questions about filing a Form I-800A or I-800 petition:
National Benefits Center
Tel: 1-877-424-8374 (toll free); 1-816-251-2770 (local)
U.S. Immigration Requirements for Intercountry Adoptions
To bring an adopted child to the United States from Sweden, you must meet eligibility and suitability requirements. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), determines who can adopt under U.S. immigration law.
Additionally, a child must meet the definition of Convention adoptee under U.S. law in order to immigrate to the United States on an IH-3 or IH-4 immigrant visa.