Travel.State.Gov > International Travel > Country Information > Syria International Travel Information
The U.S. Department of State strongly recommends that U.S. citizens remaining in Syria depart immediately. More information can be found in the U.S. Department of State’s Syria Travel Advisory. The U.S. Embassy in Damascus suspended operations in February 2012 and therefore cannot provide protection or routine consular services to U.S. citizens who choose to travel to or remain in Syria despite the Travel Advisory.
The Government of the Czech Republic, acting through its Embassy in Damascus, serves as Protecting Power for U.S. interests in Syria. The range of consular services the Czech Republic provides to U.S. citizens is extremely limited. U.S. citizens in Syria who seek consular services should contact the U.S. Interests Section of the Embassy of the Czech Republic in Damascus at USIS_damascus@embassy.mzv.cz.
U.S. citizens in Syria who are in need of emergency assistance, and are unable to reach the U.S. Interests Section of the Embassy of the Czech Republic or must make contact outside business hours, should contact the U.S. Embassy in Amman, Jordan:
Telephone: 962 (6) 590-6950 (Daily 2-3:30 local time)
Emergencies: 962 (6) 590-6500
U.S. citizens may also call 1-888-407-4747 (from the U.S.) or +1 202-501-4444 (from overseas) for assistance.
A passport and a visa are required. Visas must be obtained prior to arrival in Syria from a Syrian diplomatic mission located in the traveler’s country of residence. The Embassy of the Syrian Arab Republic in Washington, DC suspended all operations, including consular services on March 18, 2014, and has not appointed a protecting power.
Foreigners who wish to stay 15 days or more in Syria must register with Syrian immigration authorities by the 15th day of their stay.
Syria charges a departure tax at its land and sea borders for all visitors except those on diplomatic passports and children under the age of 11.
Israel Travel: The Syrian government rigidly enforces restrictions on prior travel to Israel and does not allow persons with passports bearing Israeli visas or entry/exit stamps to enter the country. Likewise, the absence of entry stamps from a country adjacent to Israel, which the traveler has just visited, will cause Syrian immigration officials to refuse admittance. Overland entry into Syria directly from Israel is not possible. U.S. citizen travelers suspected of having traveled to Israel have been detained for questioning.
Dual Nationality: U.S. males holding dual Syrian citizenship or non-dual U.S. citizen men of Syrian origin, even those born in the United States, may be subject to compulsory military service unless they receive a temporary or permanent exemption from a Syrian diplomatic mission abroad prior to their entry into Syria. Syria usually will not issue visas or residency permits to students wishing to study religion or Arabic in private religious institutions.
A child under the age of eighteen whose father is Syrian or of Syrian descent must have his/her father’s permission to leave Syria, even if the parents are separated or divorced and the mother has been granted full custody by a Syrian court. On occasion, the families of U.S.-Syrian women visiting Syria have attempted to prevent them from leaving the country, generally in order to compel the woman to marry. Although under Syrian law a woman does not need her husband's explicit consent every time she wishes to leave Syria, a Syrian husband may take legal action to prevent his wife from leaving the country, regardless of her nationality. Once such legal orders are in place, the U.S. government cannot help U.S. citizens to leave Syria.
Some HIV/AIDS entry restrictions exist for visitors or foreign residents of Syria. AIDS tests are mandatory for foreigners from ages 15 to 60 who wish to reside in Syria. The AIDS test must be conducted in Syria at a facility approved by the Syrian Ministry of Health. A residence permit will not be issued until the applicant is determined HIV negative. Foreigners wishing to marry Syrian nationals in Syria must also be tested for HIV. Please verify this information with the Syrian government before you travel.
The Department of State continues to warn U.S. citizens against travel to Syria and strongly recommends that U.S. citizens remaining in Syria depart immediately, if they are able to depart safely, per the U.S. Department of State’s Syria Travel Advisory. The Syrian regime has committed over the last decade and continues to commit a wide range of gross violations of human rights, some of which constitute war crimes and crimes against humanity. Violent conflict between government and anti-government groups continues throughout the country.
Syrian regime military operations have involved the use of ballistic missiles, aerial attacks, heavy artillery, and chemical weapons that have struck civilian populations and infrastructure. Attacks from the regime or other groups could happen with little or no warning. No part of Syria should be considered immune from violence, and the potential exists throughout the country for unpredictable and hostile acts, including kidnappings, sniper assaults, terrorist attacks, small arms fire, improvised explosives, artillery shelling, airstrikes, the use of chemical weapons, large- and small-scale bombings, as well as unjust arrest, detention, torture, sexual and gender-based violence, and extrajudicial killings.
Syrian Conflict: The Syrian Arab Republic is ruled by an authoritarian regime dominated by the Socialist Ba'ath Party currently engaged in an armed conflict with the armed Syrian opposition.
Sources estimate that the conflict has resulted in over 500,000 deaths with hundreds of thousands more wounded, unjustly detained, or forcibly disappeared. The Syrian conflict has resulted in over 5.6 million registered Syrian refugees, and approximately 6.9 million people are displaced inside Syria, while 4.53 million remain in hard-to-reach and besieged areas. The Syrian government and its partners continue to prohibit the free flow of humanitarian aid into besieged areas, resulting in severe food shortages. More than 14 million people in Syria are in need of humanitarian assistance.
Since September 2014, the U.S. government and others in the Defeat-ISIS Coalition have taken military strikes on Syrian territory.
Entities Operating in Syria: The Syrian government has regained control over most of the country, but some competing entities maintain greater control and influence in areas of northern Syria. Additionally, areas of southern Syria controlled by the Syrian government are constantly challenged by armed groups. Some armed groups have used car bombs, improvised explosive device/indirect-fire attacks, sniper fire, and carried out kidnappings throughout the country. Foreign combatants – including members of Iranian-aligned militia groups, Hizballah fighters, violent Islamist extremists, and al-Qa'ida (AQ) elements – are also participating in hostilities. Additionally, Turkey has become increasingly involved in military operations throughout northern Syria, seeking to counter the influence of the Kurdistan Worker’s Party (PKK), a designated terrorist organization.
Hayat Tahrir al-Sham (HTS), an alias of al-Nusrah Front, an AQ affiliate and designated terrorist organization, has consolidated power in the northwestern province of Idlib. HTS control over Idlib threatens the ability of NGOs and states to deliver humanitarian aid to Syrians living there. Russian and/or Syrian government forces continue to conduct airstrikes in Idlib province. Strikes have resulted in civilian fatalities, including of medical personnel, children, and internally displaced persons and caused significant damage to civilian infrastructure such as medical facilities, schools, markets, and civilian housing.
The Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) no longer controls territory in Syria but continues to operate as an insurgency throughout the country. ISIS continues to pose a significant threat to civilians residing in Syria and has demonstrated the ability to conduct coordinated attacks against armed actors and civilians. Tactics of ISIS, HTS, and other violent extremist groups include the use of suicide bombers, kidnapping, small and heavy arms, improvised explosive devices, and chemical weapons. They have targeted major city centers, road checkpoints, border crossings, government buildings, energy infrastructure, shopping areas, and open spaces in Damascus, Aleppo, Hamah, Dara, Homs, Idlib, and Dayr al-Zawr provinces. These groups have murdered and kidnapped U.S. citizens, both for ransom and political purposes; in some instances, U.S. citizens have disappeared within Syria. The U.S. government’s ability to help U.S. citizens kidnapped or taken hostage is very limited.
Chemical Weapons: The Syrian regime has repeatedly used chemical weapons, including the nerve agent sarin and chlorine gas, against civilians. ISIS has also been found responsible for several sulfur mustard attacks in Syria. Although there has not been a documented chemical weapons attack in Syria since May 2019, the continuing violence, security situation, and ongoing concerns about Syria’s remaining chemical weapons capabilities contributes to a volatile situation.
Kidnapping and Hostage Taking: There is an ongoing, high risk of kidnapping or hostage taking of U.S. citizens and Westerners throughout the country. U.S. citizens remain a specific target, with several high-profile abductions having occurred since mid-2012. U.S. citizen victims have had diverse professional backgrounds, including journalism and humanitarian work. U.S. citizens held captive by ISIS have been murdered by the group, which released videos of killings and publicly took responsibility for their deaths. U.S. citizens have been abducted by other individuals and groups in Syria, and from various locations, including Damascus and Aleppo. Other U.S. citizens have gone missing and are believed to have been kidnapped or taken hostage. Enforced disappearance is also used by government security forces on a massive scale to spread fear, stifle dissent, and as punishment. .
Borders: A porous border with Iraq, and long-standing border issues with Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Turkey, and Israel, have contributed to a complex security environment in Syria, compounded by a protracted violent conflict and influx of foreign fighters. Since 2012, there have been multiple reports of Syrian shelling of neighboring countries near border areas, most significantly in Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan, and the Golan Heights.
U.S. citizens should increase their vigilance if they travel within Syria to border areas with Iraq or Israel, the Golan Heights, or the Al-Jazira (eastern Syria) region. The Government of Turkey severely restricts crossings of its border with Syria, limited exclusively to individuals working for organizations engaged in the authorized provision of humanitarian assistance. Individuals seeking emergency medical treatment or safety from immediate danger are assessed on a case-by-case basis.
U.S. citizens have reported facing dangers traveling within the country and when trying to leave Syria via land borders, given the diminished availability of commercial air travel out of Syria. Opposition-held border checkpoints should not be considered safe, as they are targeted by regime attacks and some armed groups have sought funding through kidnappings for ransom. Border areas are frequent targets of shelling and other attacks and are crowded because of internally-displaced persons. Errant attacks will occasionally hit border towns just outside the borders as well.
Engaging in Armed Conflict: The U.S. government particularly warns U.S. citizens against traveling to Syria to engage in armed conflict. U.S. citizens who undertake such activity face extreme personal risks, including kidnapping, injury, or death. The U.S. government does not support this activity, and our ability to provide consular assistance to individuals who are arrested, injured, or kidnapped, or to the families of individuals who die in the conflict, is extremely limited. Individuals who demonstrate an interest in groups opposing ISIS, including on social media, could open themselves to being targeted by ISIS itself, especially if those individuals travel to Syria.
Fighting on behalf of or providing other forms of financial and material support to designated terrorist organizations, including ISIS and al-Nusrah Front, is a crime under U.S. law that can result in penalties including prison time and large fines.
Terrorism: Syria has been designated as a State Sponsor of Terrorism since 1979 and has given support to a variety of terrorist groups, affecting the stability of the region. Terrorists often do not distinguish between U.S. government personnel and private U.S. citizens. Terrorists may target areas frequented by Westerners, such as tourist sites, hotels, restaurants, and other frequently visited areas. U.S. citizens still in Syria are strongly encouraged to depart Syria immediately. U.S. citizens who choose to remain despite this warning should maintain a high level of vigilance and be aware of their surroundings. It is especially important for travelers to be unpredictable in their movements by varying times and routes and maintaining a low profile.
Elements within both the regime, as well as non-state actor groups, maintain anti-U.S. or anti-Western sentiment, which may intensify following significant events in the region, particularly those related to U.S.-Syria relations, international intervention in the ongoing conflict, Israeli-Palestinian issues, the status of Jerusalem, and clashes in Lebanon.
The combination of terrorist organizations, a porous border with Iraq and long-standing border issues with all of its neighbors (Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq, Turkey, and Israel) have made Syria a destabilizing factor in the region and a potential target for reprisal. Read the Department of State’s Human Rights Report, Trafficking in Persons Report, International Religious Freedom Report, Fact Sheet on U.S. Relations with Syria, and Country Reports on Terrorism for additional information.
Unjust Detention: U.S. citizens are also targets of abduction and unjust detention by the Syrian regime. Family members seeking to obtain information about their missing or unjustly detained loved ones face risk of detention, abuse, and exploitation when inquiring directly with the regime. Detainees are often held in detention centers for years under harsh and unsanitary conditions without any information provided to their loved ones on their status . These conditions allow for the quick spread of the COVID-19 virus, which has a devastating impact on vulnerable detainees after years of abuse, malnutrition, and restricted access to medical care. Pervasive abuse of detainees has been documented in government detention centers, as well as physical violence, including sexual and gender-based violence, and extrajudicial killings. The regime continues to deny complete access for impartial and independent entities, including medical organizations, to most detention facilities.
Government Surveillance: The Syrian government conducts intense physical and electronic surveillance of both Syrian citizens and foreign visitors on a domestic and global scale. Any encounter with a Syrian citizen could be subject to scrutiny by the General Intelligence Directorate (GID) or other security services. Sustained interactions with average Syrians – especially if deemed to be of a political nature – may subject that Syrian to harassment and/or detention, and other forms of repressive actions by state security elements. Hotel rooms, internet connections, telephones, and fax machines may be monitored, and personal possessions in hotel rooms may be searched. The regime has reportedly planted spyware and other malware in Android applications to target human rights activists, opposition members, and journalists. Loitering or taking photographs of anything that could be perceived as being of military or security interest may result in questioning, confiscation of the images, or detention by security services. Additionally, U.S. citizens should be aware that conversations on the topics of politics, religion, and other social issues could lead to arrest. It is also illegal in Syria to possess specific-use electronic devices including GPS, short-wave or handheld radio equipment, or similar devices.
Crime: Since the suspension of operations of the U.S. Embassy in Damascus in February of 2012, the U.S. government has not been able to provide accurate information about crime involving U.S. citizens visiting or living in Syria. The Department of State strongly recommends that U.S. citizens remaining in Syria depart immediately.
Victims of Crime: If you or someone you know becomes the victim of a crime abroad, you should contact the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate. The Czech Government, through the U.S. Interests Section of the Czech Embassy in Damascus, currently serves as the Protecting Power for U.S. interests in Syria; however, their ability to provide services is extremely limited.
The U.S. Interests Section, in coordination with nearby U.S. embassies and consulates, may be able to:
The local equivalents to the “911” emergency line in Syria are 110 for ambulance, 113 for fire, and 112 for the police. Syrian operators do not usually speak English and contact with security services has the potential to result in unjust arrest, detention, or disappearance.
See our webpage on help for U.S. victims of crime overseas.
Domestic Violence: U.S. citizen victims of domestic violence may contact the U.S. Interests Section or U.S. Embassy Amman for assistance.
International Financial Scams: See the Department of State and the FBI pages for information. Internet romance and financial scams are prevalent in Syria. Scams are often initiated through Internet postings/profiles or by unsolicited emails and letters. Scammers almost always pose as U.S. citizens who have no one else to turn to for help. Common scams include:
Tourism: No formal tourism industry infrastructure is in place. Tourists are considered to be participating in activities at their own risk. Emergency response and subsequent appropriate medical treatment is not available in-country. U.S. citizens are encouraged to purchase medical evacuation insurance. See our webpage for more information on insurance providers for overseas coverage.
Criminal Penalties: You are subject to local laws. If you violate local laws, even unknowingly, you may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned.
For example, under the Narcotics Act, article 39, Syria imposes the death penalty for drug trafficking or cultivation.
Women who are arrested under suspicion of immoral behavior (e.g., being alone in a room with a man who is not the woman’s husband or being in a residence where drugs or alcohol are being consumed) may be subjected to a virginity test. In addition, the Syrian government monitors the activities of all groups, including religious groups, and discourages proselytizing, which it deems a threat to relations among religious groups.
Arrest Notification: Although Syria is a signatory to the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, Syrian authorities generally do not notify the U.S. Interests Section of the arrest of a U.S. citizen until weeks after the arrest, if at all. Moreover, in previous cases security officials have not responded to U.S. requests for consular access, especially in cases of persons detained for “security” reasons. See our webpage for further information.
Military Service: U.S.-Syrian and U.S.-Palestinian men who have never served in the Syrian military and who are planning to visit Syria despite the U.S. Department of State’s Syria Travel Advisory should contact the Syrian government prior to traveling concerning compulsory military service.
U.S. citizen men over the age of 18, even those who have never resided in or visited Syria, and whose fathers are of Syrian descent, are required to complete military service or pay the exemption fee. U.S. citizen men in Syria could face detention and compulsory service if they have not yet completed military service or paid exemption fees. Possession of a U.S. passport does not absolve the bearer of this obligation.
Special Circumstances: Syria is in the midst of a violent conflict. The Department of State strongly recommends that U.S. citizens remaining in Syria despite the U.S. Department of State’s Syria Travel Advisory depart immediately.
The destruction of infrastructure, housing, medical facilities, schools, and power and water utilities has increased hardships in Syria. Communications in Syria are difficult as phone and internet connections are unreliable.
Customs Requirements: Syrian customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Syria of items such as weapons, narcotics, alcohol, tobacco, cheese, fruit, pharmaceuticals, modems, cosmetics, and some electrical appliances. Please refer to our Customs Information page for additional information.
Banking and Commerce:
Trade and Sanctions: The United States maintains a robust sanctions regime on Syria. Syria sanctions cover a range of topics, including trade, finance, non-proliferation, foreign assistance, and others. The Syrian government is under comprehensive sanctions, including for its human rights abuses, some of which rise to the level of war crimes and crimes against humanity. Syria sanctions prohibit a wide range of transactions in Syria, including with sanctioned entities, unless authorized by the Department of the Treasury or the Department of Commerce. Please consult the Department of Treasury and Department of Commerce websites for more details.
Requests for specific licenses to authorize transactions that are neither exempt nor covered by a general license may be submitted to the Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC).
Terrorism List Government Sanctions Regulations prohibit U.S. persons from receiving unlicensed donations from the Syrian government. You can review the Department of Treasury’s Syria Sanctions page for more information.
Additionally, U.S. persons are prohibited from engaging in financial transactions which a U.S. person knows or has reasonable cause to believe pose a risk of furthering terrorist acts in the United States. For additional information about Terrorism List Government Sanctions Regulations, consult the terrorism brochure on the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s OFAC home page or via OFAC's info-by-fax service at (202) 622-0077.
Faith-Based Travelers: See our following webpages for details:
LGBTQI+ Travelers: Syrian law criminalizes consensual same-sex conduct under penal code article 520, which states that each sexual act "against the order of nature" is punishable by as long as three years imprisonment. Rather than prosecute under that law, however, the regime has arrested dozens of LGBTQI+ persons on charges such as abusing social values; selling, buying, or consuming illegal drugs; or organizing and promoting “obscene” parties. Credible NGOs report that the Syrian regime uses detention centers to torture and commit acts of sexual and gender-based violence against suspected members of the LGBTQI+ community. Abuses include rape, forced nudity, and anal or vaginal “examinations.” Individuals perceived as LGBTQI+ report being sexually abused and harassed at checkpoints. Public reports indicate that ISIS and HTS murder individuals perceived to be LGBTQI+, inclusive of those accused of engaging in same-sex sexual conduct. See our LGBTQI+ travel information page and section 6 of our Human Rights report for additional information.
Travelers Who Require Accessibility Assistance: While in Syria, individuals with disabilities may find accessibility and accommodation very different from what you find in the United States. Syrian law protects persons with disabilities from discrimination in education, access to health, or provision of other state services; but the government has not enforced these provisions. Sidewalks are generally unevenly paved and often blocked by parked cars. Stairs must be used to access many public buildings, restaurants, cafes, and other tourist spots.
Women Travelers: See our travel tips for Women Travelers.
Basic medical care and medicines are available in Damascus and some coastal areas, but not necessarily in other areas. Serious illnesses and emergencies may require evacuation to a neighboring country or Western medical facility. There are shortages of food, water, medicine, and medical supplies throughout Syria.
For emergency services in Syria, dial 110 for ambulance and 113 for fire.
Ambulance services are not present throughout the country, except in the capital and provincial cities.
The U.S. government does not pay medical bills. Also, be aware that U.S. Medicare does not apply overseas.
Medical Insurance: Find out if your health insurance plan provides coverage overseas, though hospitals and doctors abroad may not accept it. Care providers in Syria only accept cash payments up front, and the cost for services can be expensive.
See our webpage for more information on insurance providers for overseas coverage. Visit the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for more information on type of insurance you should consider before you travel overseas.
We strongly recommend supplemental insurance to cover medical evacuation. In addition, you might wish to check whether your insurance will cover injuries sustained in a conflict zone.
If traveling with prescription medication, check with the Government of Syria to ensure that the medication is legal in Syria. Always carry your prescription medication in original packaging with your doctor’s prescription.
Vaccinations: Be up-to-date on all vaccinations recommended by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The following diseases are prevalent:
COVID-19: The Department of State has a limited ability to monitor COVID-19 conditions in Syria. U.S. citizens who must travel to Syria are strongly urged to get fully vaccinated and get a booster shot before travel, and should take additional personal health safety measures to protect themselves, including practicing social or physical distancing, cleaning hands with soap/hand sanitizer, wearing well-fitted masks, and avoiding crowded areas with poor ventilation.
Further health information:
Road Conditions and Safety: While in Syria, you may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
Visitors are likely to encounter hostile activity, harassment, and abduction at both official and unofficial security checkpoints on roads throughout the country. You should exercise caution if driving in Syria because conditions are hazardous, in addition to the threat posed by the active conflict.
Although drivers generally follow traffic signs and signals in urban centers, they maneuver aggressively and show little regard for vehicles traveling near them. Lane markings are usually ignored. Different from the United States, vehicles within Syrian traffic circles must give way to entering traffic. At night, it is very difficult to see pedestrians, who often walk into traffic with little warning. Outside major cities, it is common to find pedestrians, animals and vehicles on unlighted roads at night.
Pedestrians should also exercise caution. Parked cars, deteriorating pavement, and guard posts obstruct sidewalks, often forcing pedestrians to walk in the street. Vehicles often do not stop for pedestrians, and regularly run red lights or “jump” the green light well before it changes. Drivers and passengers are subject to demands for money, harassment and abduction throughout the country. Rule of law, including traffic laws, and law enforcement is absent in many areas of the country.
See our Road Safety page for more information.
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
Because of the risks to civil aviation operating within or in the vicinity of Syria, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has issued a Notice to Air Missions (NOTAM) and/or a Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) that prohibits U.S. and codeshare flights from flying through Syrian airspace and advises caution for flights operating within 200 nautical miles.
For more information, U.S. citizens should consult the Federal Aviation Administration's Prohibitions, Restrictions, and Notices.
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Syria, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed the government of Syria’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. Further information may be found on the FAA’s safety assessment page.
MARITIME TRAVEL: Mariners planning travel to Syria should also check for U.S. maritime advisories and alerts within the MARAD website. Information may also be posted to the U.S. Coast Guard homeport website, and the NGA broadcast warnings website. Select “broadcast warnings” from within the NGA site.