Travel.State.Gov > International Travel > Learn About Your Destination > Nigeria International Travel Information
1075 Diplomatic Drive
Central District Area, Abuja
Telephone: +(234) (0) (9) 461-4000
U.S. Consulate General Lagos
2 Walter Carrington Crescent,
Telephone: +(234) (0) (1) 460-3400 (Monday through Thursday 7:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.; Friday, 7:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m.)
Emergency After-Hours Telephone: +(234) (0) (1) 460-3400
The Government of Nigeria requires COVID-specific testing prior to arrival.
A passport valid for six months, a visa, and proof of Polio and Yellow Fever vaccinations are required to enter Nigeria. You must obtain your Nigerian visa from a Nigerian embassy or consulate in advance of your travel.
What does "Visa on Arrival" mean in Nigeria? Nigeria's "Visa on Arrival" requires pre-approval. You must receive a Visa on Arrival approval document from a Nigerian embassy or consulate prior to travel to Nigeria. A Visa on Arrival is only available for the purpose of business travel, as defined by the Nigerian government. No Visa on Arrival is available for tourism. If you attempt to travel to Nigeria without a visa issued into your passport or a Visa on Arrival approval document from a Nigerian embassy or consulate, you will be refused entry. This information is subject to change. Please refer to the Nigerian Immigration Services (NIS) guidelines (https://immigration.gov.ng/visa-on-arrival-process/) and utilize the forms available on their website.
Visit the Embassy of Nigeria website for the most current visa information.
The Nigerian Fire Arms Act (1990) provides that no person shall have in his possession or under his control any firearm or ammunition except such person that has a license from the President or from the Inspector General of Police. U.S. citizens found with firearms (declared or undeclared) will be arrested.
You cannot legally depart Nigeria unless you can prove, by presenting your visa and entry stamp, that you entered Nigeria legally. In addition, if you exceed your authorized period of stay (as determined by the duration of stay given by the entry officer), you will be required to pay a fine before being allowed to depart. The fine can be up to $4,000 USD depending on the length of overstay.
U.S.-Nigeria dual-national citizens are now required to have a valid Nigerian passport in order to depart the country. Dual-national citizens can be, and often are, denied boarding until they have obtained non-expired Nigerian passports.
A World Health Organization (WHO) yellow card is required for entry into the country. The Nigerian authorities require a Yellow Fever vaccination within the past ten years and that adults have a Polio booster after the original childhood vaccine series. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention publishes a country-specific list of recommended vaccines to receive prior to arrival. See also the Health section below.
Some HIV/AIDS entry restrictions exist for visitors to and foreign residents of Nigeria. Nigerian authorities may deny entry to foreigners who are “undesirable for medical reasons” and may require HIV tests for foreigners intending to marry Nigerian citizens. Please verify this information with the Embassy of Nigeria before travel.
Terrorism: Terrorist groups and those inspired by such organizations are intent on attacking U.S. citizens abroad. Terrorists are increasingly using less sophisticated methods of attack –including knives, firearms, and vehicles – to target crowds more effectively. Frequently, their aim is focused on unprotected or vulnerable targets, such as:
Please see our most recent Travel Advisory for more details.
For more information, see our Terrorism page.
Crime: Muggings, assaults, burglaries, car-jackings, rape, kidnappings, and extortion occur regularly. Law enforcement authorities usually respond slowly and often do not have the resources to provide investigative support to victims.
The U.S. government has limited ability to provide emergency services to U.S. citizens beyond Abuja and Lagos and their immediate surrounding areas. U.S. government employees may be subject to travel constraints as security conditions warrant.
Demonstrations occur frequently. They may take place in response to political or economic issues, on politically significant holidays, and during international events.
Internet romance and financial scams are prevalent in Nigeria. Scams are often initiated through Internet postings/profiles or by unsolicited emails and letters. Scammers almost always pose as U.S. citizens who have no one else to turn to for help. Common scams include:
Victims of Crime: U.S. citizen victims of sexual assault are encouraged to contact the U.S. Embassy in Abuja or Consulate General in Lagos for assistance. Report crimes to the local police at 112, and contact the Embassy at +(234)(9)461-4328 or Consulate General at +(234)(1) 460-3400. Remember that local authorities are responsible for investigating and prosecuting crime.
Justice in Nigeria may be uneven. Many crimes go unsolved. Others may not be prosecuted to a successful conclusion for the victim.
See our webpage on help for U.S. citizen victims of crime overseas.
Domestic Violence: U.S. citizen victims of domestic violence are encouraged to contact the Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
Tourism: The tourism industry is unevenly regulated, and safety inspections for equipment and facilities do not commonly occur. Hazardous areas/activities are not always identified with appropriate signage, and staff may not be trained or certified either by the host government or by recognized authorities in the field. In the event of an injury, appropriate medical treatment is typically available only in/near major cities. First responders are generally unable to access areas outside of major cities and to provide urgent medical treatment. Even within major cities, the limited number of first responders and extreme traffic congestion can cause lengthy delays in response time. Emergency services comparable to those in the United States or Europe are non-existent, and the blood supply is unreliable and unsafe for transfusion. You should consider traveling to the United States, Europe, or South Africa for treatment for serious conditions. U.S. citizens are strongly encouraged to purchase medical evacuation insurance. See our webpage for more information on insurance providers for overseas coverage.
Maritime Security: Piracy and armed robbery in the Gulf of Guinea continue to trend upwards. Pirates/armed groups operating in the region typically carry out attacks on vessels using automatic weapons. Attacks, kidnappings for ransom, and robbery of crew, passengers, and ship’s property continue to be common occurrences.
Criminal Penalties: You are subject to local laws. If you violate local laws, even unknowingly, you may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned. Possession, use, or sale of cannabis and related products is prohibited under Nigerian law. U.S. citizens who violate the law may be subject to arrest and prosecution. Individuals establishing a business or practicing a profession that requires additional permits or licensing should seek information from the competent local authorities prior to practicing or operating a business.
Arrest Notification: If you are arrested or detained, ask police or prison officials to notify the U.S. Embassy or Consulate General immediately. In cases where detainees are dual citizens (holders of U.S. and Nigerian citizenship), the U.S. Embassy or Consulate General may not be promptly notified. See our webpage for further information.
Faith-Based Travelers: See the following webpages for details:
LGBTI Travelers: Consensual, same-sex sexual relations are illegal in Nigeria. Entering same-sex marriage contracts and civil unions (defined to include “any arrangement between persons of the same sex to live together as sex partners”) is also criminalized, with punishments including fines and prison sentences of up to 14 years. Same-sex marriage contracts and civil unions entered into in a foreign country are not recognized under Nigerian law.
Public displays of affection between persons of the same sex are also punishable by up to ten years imprisonment. Furthermore, the law allows for the prosecution of persons who support or belong to advocacy groups relating to LGBTI issues, with prison sentences of up to ten years. U.S. citizens who participate in free speech or assemblies relating to same-sex marriage could potentially be prosecuted under this law.
In the following northern states, where Sharia law applies, penalties can also include death: Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Niger, Sokoto, Yobe, and Zamfara.
Travelers with Disabilities: The law in Nigeria prohibits discrimination against persons with physical, sensory, intellectual, or mental disabilities; however, the law is very unevenly enforced. Social acceptance of persons with disabilities in public is not as prevalent as in the United States.
Few government buildings, schools, banks, or grocery stores have accessible facilities, including in Abuja and Lagos. Some hospitals and clinics are equally inaccessible to people with disabilities and lack wheelchair ramps or lifts, including some of the hospitals travelers commonly use. Expect accessibility to be very limited in transportation, lodging, communication/information, and general infrastructure, and largely absent outside of major cities.
Much of the disability equipment for sale locally is refurbished rather than new. Replacement parts can be found in local informal markets and are also generally refurbished parts. Imported higher-end equipment such as electric wheelchairs and lifting equipment can be purchased from a limited number of medical equipment suppliers in the major cities.
Women Travelers: Rape is a crime in Nigeria. According to the Violence Against Persons Prohibition (VAPP) Act, rape is punishable by 12 years to life imprisonment for offenders older than 14 and a maximum of 14 years imprisonment for offenders younger than 14. Rape remains a rampant problem.
The VAPP Act, currently applicable only in the Federal Capital Territory, addresses sexual, physical, psychological, and socioeconomic violence, and harmful traditional practices. Federal law criminalizes female circumcision or genital mutilation (FGM/C). Twelve states have also banned FGM/C, though the practice remains common in parts of both Northern and Southern Nigeria.
See our travel tips for Women Travelers.
The Government of Nigeria requires COVID-specific testing prior to arrival.
Nigerian medical facilities are generally poorly equipped. Many medicines are unavailable, including medications for diabetes or asthma. Take care when purchasing medicines locally, as counterfeit pharmaceuticals are a common problem, and may be difficult to distinguish from genuine medications. Hospitals often expect immediate cash payment for health services.
Emergency services comparable to those in the United States or Europe are non-existent, and the blood supply is unreliable and unsafe for transfusion. For serious medical problems, you should consider traveling to the United States, Europe, or South Africa for treatment.
For emergency services in Nigeria, dial 112.
Ambulance services are:
We do not pay medical bills. Be aware that U.S. Medicare/Medicaid does not apply overseas. Most hospitals and doctors overseas do not accept U.S. health insurance.
Medical Insurance: Make sure your health insurance plan provides coverage overseas. Most care providers overseas only accept cash payments. See our webpage for more information on insurance providers for overseas coverage. Visit the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for more information on types of insurance you should consider before you travel overseas.
We strongly recommend supplemental insurance to cover medical evacuation.
Always carry your prescription medication in original packaging with your doctor’s prescription. Check with the Federal Ministry of Health in Nigeria to ensure the medication is legal in Nigeria.
Vaccinations: Be up-to-date on all vaccinations recommended by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Further Health Information:
The U.S. Embassy maintains a list of doctors and hospitals. We do not endorse or recommend any specific medical provider or clinic.
Health Facilities in General:
Medical Tourism and Elective Surgery:
Assisted Reproductive Technology and Surrogacy:
The following diseases are prevalent:
Road Conditions and Safety: Roads are generally in poor condition, causing damage to vehicles and contributing to hazardous traffic conditions. There are few working traffic lights or stop signs, and few traffic officers to manage traffic during power outages. The rainy season, generally from May to October, is especially dangerous because of flooded roads and water-concealed potholes.
All drivers and passengers should wear seat belts, lock doors, and keep windows closed. You should have appropriate automobile insurance. Drivers and passengers of vehicles involved in accidents resulting in injury or death have experienced extra-judicial actions, i.e., mob attacks, official consequences such as fines and incarceration, and/or confrontations with the victim's family.
Driving between 6:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m. should be done with extreme caution. Automobiles, trucks, or “okadas” (motorbikes) often drive on the wrong side of the road or on sidewalks.
Traffic Laws: Motor vehicle accidents can be reported by dialing “119.” Traffic control officers may occasionally seek bribes when citing drivers for traffic violations. If stopped by traffic police, drivers should stop as instructed. However, drivers should also keep their doors locked and only roll their windows down an inch for sound. Do not pay any bribes.If requested to drive an officer to the police station, do not do so, especially at night, as some traffic police are imposters.
Public Transportation: We recommend avoiding public transportation throughout Nigeria. Public transportation vehicles, such as buses and motorbikes, are unsafe due to poor maintenance, high speeds, and overcrowding. Motorbikes are banned within Abuja's city limits and many major thoroughfares in Lagos. “Okada” drivers and passengers are required to wear helmets in several cities; police can fine violators on the spot.
Aviation Safety Oversight: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the government of Nigeria’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Nigeria’s air carrier operations. Further information may be found on the FAA’s safety assessment page.
Maritime Travel: Mariners planning travel to Nigeria or through the Gulf of Guinea should also check for U.S. maritime advisories and alerts. Information may also be posted to the U.S. Coast Guard homeport website, and the ICC and NGA broadcast warnings.
The Commandant of the Coast Guard has determined that effective anti-terrorism measures are not in place in Nigeria ports and has imposed conditions of entry on vessels that arrive in U.S. ports having visited ports in Nigeria. Mariners and passengers on commercial vessels traveling through the ports of Nigeria should exercise increased caution.