What to Expect After Adoption

Acquiring U.S. Citizenship for your Child

It is important to ensure your adopted child becomes a U.S. citizen. If you postpone documenting or obtaining your child's citizenship, he or she may have difficulty obtaining college scholarships, working legally, voting, and enjoying other rights and privileges. In some cases, the child might even be subject to deportation. Act now to safeguard your child's rights and future.  Please review important information about the Child Citizenship Act of 2000.

Post-Adoption and Post-Placement Reporting

Post-Adoption Reporting

Many countries require adoptive parents or adoption service providers to report on the child’s progress and welfare after an adoption has concluded, sometimes for several years after the adoption took place. These reports are generally referred to as post-adoption reports (PARs).

PARs generally cover the child's development and progress adjusting to his or her new family and life in a new country. Post-adoption reports provide an important opportunity for the adoptive parents and the child to discuss the progress of the adoption. They may also provide assurances to political leaders and adoption officials in the child’s country of origin that intercountry adoption was indeed in the child’s best interest. The requirements and frequency of these reports vary from country to country. Some countries permit adoptive families to prepare and submit the reports, while other countries expect a licensed social worker or the primary adoption service provider to prepare and submit the reports.

Post-Placement Reporting

Some countries grant only provisional approval of an adoption pending a child’s residence for several months with the adoptive family in their country. Those countries may then require prospective adoptive parents to submit periodic post-placement reports. Based on these reports, the child’s country of origin evaluates whether the child and parents are bonding, and how well the child is settling into the new culture and family environment. Some countries require a licensed social worker or the primary U.S. adoption service provider to prepare and submit these reports. Timely submission of post-placement reports will help ensure that the adoption is finalized without delay.

Compliance with Reporting Obligations

It is vital that prospective adoptive parents understand a country's reporting requirements before pursuing an adoption. The number and frequency of reports varies from country to country. In some instances, the prospective adoptive parent may be directly responsible for preparing and submitting reports, while in other countries, the ASP is responsible for sending the report. 

The Department strongly urges all adoptive parents to take these obligations seriously and comply with post-adoption and post-placement requirements in a timely manner. Failure to do so may put at risk the ability of future U.S. families and foreign children to be matched. Your cooperation will contribute to the country of origin’s history of positive experiences with U.S. citizen adoptive parents. Your adoption service provider, the country specific adoption information available on this website, and the U.S. embassy or consulate in the child’s country of origin will also help better understand reporting requirements in the specific country that you are adopting from.

Post-Adoption Services

Post-adoption services may include: support groups, education, social and cultural activities, camps, therapists, medical resources, assistance in the search for family, and access to files. There are many public and private nonprofit organizations that provide such post-adoption resources and services. There are also numerous adoptive family support groups and adult adoptee organizations active in the United States that provide a network of options for adoptive families who wish to have contact with other adoptees or adoptive families from the same country of origin.

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Child Welfare Information Gateway provides information and resources related to child welfare, adoption, and more.  

Here are some additional resources to research post-adoption support and services: