NicaraguaOfficial Name: Republic of Nicaragua
Passport must be valid for length of stay.
BLANK PASSPORT PAGES:
One page required for entry stamp
TOURIST VISA REQUIRED:
Not required for stays of 90 days or less. Tourist must purchase a tourist card for USD$10 upon arrival.
Suggested are vaccinations against hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies, and typhoid. The traveler’s tetanus and diphtheria vaccination should also be up-to-date.
CURRENCY RESTRICTIONS FOR ENTRY:
CURRENCY RESTRICTIONS FOR EXIT:
Embassies and Consulates
Km 5 ½ Carretera Sur
Telephone: +(505) 2252-7100
Emergency After-Hours Telephone: +(505) 2252-7171
Fax: +(505) 2252-7250
Nicaragua is a developing country which faces many economic and political challenges. Crime while less severe than neighboring countries, is still at critical levels and continues to affect residents and visitors alike in Nicaragua. The national language is Spanish, although many residents of the Caribbean coastal areas also speak English and indigenous languages. The climate is hot and humid, with the hot dry season running mid-November through mid-May and the rainy season running from mid-May through mid-November. Terrain ranges from the hilly and volcanic to coastal beaches and tropical jungles. Geological faults, along with active volcanoes are situated, run through the country. Tremors are common, and a major earthquake destroyed most of downtown Managua in 1972.
Nicaragua presents many opportunities for tourists. There is a growing tourist infrastructure with comfortable resorts and several large, international chain hotels in Managua catering to business and government clientele as well as tourist travelers.
However, support infrastructure is still basic. A highway network exists along the Pacific side of Nicaragua and the central mountain region. Streets in most cities are in decent condition but large potholes are common and often appear suddenly, especially during rainy season. Most rural roads are unpaved. Nicaragua’s Atlantic coast is largely without paved roads.
Public transportation is undependable and sometimes unsafe. Emergency services are sporadic, and most hospitals do not meet U.S. standards. Tourists may want to obtain information from the National Tourism Institute (INTUR), the governmental agency responsible for developing, regulating, and promoting tourism in Nicaragua. INTUR’s website is in Spanish, but they have English speaking representatives available. Nicaragua’s government and judiciary are rarely responsive to efforts by the U.S. Embassy to facilitate Nicaraguan government processes for U.S. citizens. Travelers may find the police, including the Nicaraguan National Police, to be unable to provide assistance in emergency situations due to lack of resources, vehicles, and personnel to respond effectively. Read the Department of State’s Fact Sheet on Nicaragua for additional information on U.S.-Nicaragua relations.
Entry, Exit & Visa Requirements
You must have a valid U.S. passport to enter Nicaragua. Although there is a bilateral agreement which waives the six-month passport validity requirement applicable to many countries, U.S. citizens should ensure that their passports are valid for the entire length of their projected stay in the country before traveling. U.S. citizen visitors must have an onward or return ticket and evidence of sufficient funds to support themselves during their stay. U.S. citizens do not need a visa; however, a tourist card must be purchased for USD$10 upon arrival. The entry card/stamp for standard tourist visits is typically valid for 90 days and illegal presence begins to accumulate when the card expires. Visitors remaining more than the authorized period must obtain an extension from Nicaraguan Immigration. Failure to do so will likely delay your departure and require payment of a fine of at least 50 Nicaraguan cordobas (approximately USD$2) per day of illegal presence. U.S. citizens who violate their immigration status should be aware that the U.S. Embassy cannot seek to influence of the Nicaraguan government to waive or reduce the fine.
If your U.S. passport is lost or stolen while in Nicaragua, please contact the Embassy as soon as possible for information on how to replace it. Depending on how long you have been in the country, you may need to get an exit stamp from Nicaraguan Immigration before you can depart. It is possible to get this exit stamp at the airport for stays of less than 90 days, if you plan to depart by air, otherwise the stamp can be obtained at the main Immigration office.
If you enter without a visa issued by a Nicaraguan Embassy or Consulate, you must have a valid entry stamp less than 90 days old in the passport you are using to exit Nicaragua. There is also a USD$42 departure tax. Many airlines include this tax in the price of the ticket. If the tax is not included in the ticket, payment can be made at the airline counter upon departure.
Nicaraguan law requires visitors to exit Nicaragua using the same passport with which they entered the country. Dual national minors who have a claim to Nicaraguan citizenship are subject to departure requirements specific to Nicaraguan children under the age of 18, even though they may also be citizens of other countries. More information on these requirements can be found on the U.S. Embassy web site. Dual national adults are required to enter Nicaragua using a Nicaraguan passport, except for visits of less than 90 days.
According to Nicaraguan law, foreigners must be in possession of a valid identity document at all times while in Nicaragua and may be required to show it to Nicaraguan authorities upon request. Acceptable identity documents are: (1) a Nicaraguan permanent residency card, (2) a Nicaraguan temporary residency card, or (3) a valid passport or travel document accompanied by a Nicaraguan entry stamp. Police may detain travelers not in possession of an identity document.
Nicaragua is a member of the “Central America-4 (CA-4) Border Control Agreement” with Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador. Under the terms of this agreement, citizens of the four countries may travel freely across land borders between these countries without completing entry and exit formalities at immigration checkpoints. U.S. citizens and other eligible foreign nationals who legally enter any of the four countries may similarly travel among the four without obtaining additional visas or tourist entry permits for the other three CA-4 countries. Immigration officials at the first port of entry determine the length of stay, up to a maximum period of 90 days. Foreign tourists who wish to remain in the four-country region beyond the period initially granted for their visit are required to request a one-time extension of stay from local immigration authorities in the country where the traveler is physically present, or travel outside the CA-4 countries and submit a reapplication for admission to the region. Foreigners expelled from any of the four countries are excluded from the entire CA-4 region. In isolated cases, the lack of clarity in implementing the details of the CA-4 Border Control Agreement has caused temporary inconvenience to some travelers and has resulted in others being fined more than USD$100 or detained in custody for 72 hours or longer.
To verify the latest visa requirements, please visit the Embassy of Nicaragua website (Spanish only).
The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS-related entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Nicaragua. Please verify this information with the Embassy of Nicaragua before you travel.
Information on dual nationality can be found on our website. Please see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction. For further information about U.S. Customs regulations, please read our Customs Information page.
Safety and Security
Travelers to Nicaragua should be aware of their personal security and pay close attention to certain security concerns. Political demonstrations and strikes continue to occur sporadically, are usually limited to urban areas, and occasionally become violent. Typically, protests in Managua take place at major intersections or rotundas. Activities observed during past protests include, but are not limited to, the use of tear gas, rubber bullets, fireworks, rock-throwing, tire burning, road blocks, bus/vehicle burning, and physical violence between members of rival political parties. Police have often been slow to respond and reluctant to interfere in violent confrontations between rival political factions. Because even demonstrations intended to be peaceful can escalate into violence, U.S. citizens are advised to avoid crowds and blockades during such occurrences, to monitor local media reports, and to exercise caution when in the vicinity of any large gathering.
The country’s spectacular landscape presents additional safety concerns. Strong currents off sections of Nicaragua's Pacific coast have resulted in a number of drownings. Powerful waves have also caused broken bones, and sting ray injuries are not uncommon at popular beaches. Warning signs are not posted, and lifeguards and rescue equipment are not readily available. Those visiting Nicaragua's beaches should exercise appropriate caution, as experienced swimmers and surfers have drowned. In the past two years, four U.S. citizens have drowned in the waters of Nicaragua’s Pacific coast.
Hiking in volcanic or other remote areas can be dangerous and travelers should take appropriate precautions. Hikers should wear appropriate clothing and footwear and carry sufficient food and water for any trek undertaken. Individuals who travel to remote areas are encouraged to hire a reputable local guide familiar with the terrain and area. Individuals hiking Volcan Maderas and/or Volcan Concepcion on Ometepe Island are required by law to hire a local guide. Hikers have gotten lost or perished on these volcanoes, as the terrain is treacherous. Volcanic activity recently increased, resulting in a minor eruption of the Volcan San Cristobal near Chinandega in September 2012, and increased seismic activity under other volcanoes. U.S. citizens in an area of volcanic activity should heed the advice of local authorities and, if necessary, evacuate to safe areas.
Domestic travel within Nicaragua by land and air, particularly to the Atlantic coast, can be risky. Domestic airlines are generally up to international standards, but when flying to more remote locales, travelers should be aware that airports are likely to be poorly developed facilities with short airstrips, minimal safety equipment, and little boarding security.
To stay connected:
- Enroll in the Smart Traveler Enrollment Program so we can keep you up to date with important safety and security announcements.
- Follow the Bureau of Consular Affairs on Twitter and Facebook.
- Bookmark the Bureau of Consular Affairs website, which contains the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts as well as the Worldwide Caution.
- Follow the U.S. Embassy in Nicaragua on Twitter and visiting the Embassy’s website.
- In the event of an emergency, contact us at 1-888-407-4747 toll-free within the U.S. and Canada, or via a regular toll line, 1-202-501-4444, from other countries.
- Take some time before traveling to consider your personal security and checking for useful tips for traveling safely abroad.
CRIME: While less frequent than in neighboring countries, violent crime occurs in Nicaragua and robberies and thefts are very common. Gang activity exists but also remains less prevalent than in neighboring Central American countries. We advise U.S. citizens not to leave any valuables or passports in a car, especially while in restaurants or while shopping at gas station convenience stores, as there have been a large number of reports by U.S. citizens of cars being burglarized in these locations. Pick-pocketing and occasional armed robberies occur on crowded buses, at bus stops, in taxis, and in open markets like the Oriental and Huembes Markets.
The U.S. Embassy prohibits off-duty official Americans from entering the Oriental Market. Violence including robberies, assaults, and stabbings occur but are mostly confined to poverty-stricken neighborhoods, including the area around the Ticabus terminal, a major arrival and departure point for tourist buses. In the past year however, acts of crime have taken place in more upscale neighborhoods and near major hotels, including in the Zona Hippos, Galerias Mall, Santo Domingo, Las Colinas, and South Highway neighborhoods.
In the past, some U.S. citizens were targeted shortly after arriving in the country by criminals posing as Nicaraguan police officers who pull over their vehicles – including those operated by reputable hotels - under false pretenses. In each case, the incidents happened after dark and involved gun-wielding assailants who robbed passengers of all valuables and abandoned them in remote locations. Some assailants threatened physical violence. While most of the reports of this activity received by the Embassy occurred in or around Managua, there are occasional reports from other major roadways throughout the country.
There has also been an increase in armed robbery attempts by masked individuals along roadsides leading to popular tourist destinations. Assailants will step out of roadside vegetation with weapons in an attempt to stop the vehicle and rob passengers. Another criminal strategy is to set up make-shift blockades of tree branches and rocks to force travelers to stop. Once vehicle occupants exit their vehicles to move the items, they are typically robbed at gun or knife point.
U.S. citizens should exercise caution when approached by strangers offering assistance with finding a taxicab. Dozens of U.S. citizens have reported being victimized by fellow travelers who offered to assist them in locating and/or sharing a taxi in and around San Juan del Sur, San Jorge, Granada, Managua, Masaya, and other popular tourist destinations. Upon entering the taxi, the U.S. citizens were held at knifepoint or gunpoint, threatened with bodily injury and/or rape, robbed of their valuables, and driven around to ATMs to withdraw funds from their accounts. Taxi drivers have also picked up additional passengers along the route who then threaten and rob the U.S. citizen, generally in conjunction with the taxi driver. After the assault, the U.S. citizen victims were left abandoned and destitute in remote areas.
Before taking a taxi, make sure that it has a red stripe across the top and the bottom of the license plate and that the number is legible. Pick taxis carefully and note the driver's name and license number. Instruct the driver not to pick up other passengers, agree on the fare before entering the taxi, and have small bills available for payment, as taxi drivers often do not make change. Also, check that the taxi is properly labeled with the cooperativa (company) name and logo. Purse and jewelry snatchings sometimes occur at stoplights. While riding in a vehicle, windows should be closed, car doors locked and valuables placed out of sight. Radio dispatched cabs are recommended and can be summoned at Managua’s international airport and to most major hotels and restaurants.
Many consider the police presence in the tourist destination of San Juan del Sur to be inadequate. There have been incidents of sexual assaults of foreign tourists on beaches in Nicaragua. U.S. citizens were the victims of such assaults in 2011 at a popular beach hotel in San Juan del Sur and in 2013 at a beach hostel at Playa Majagual, not far from San Juan del Sur. The Embassy recommends traveling in groups when going to the beach or to isolated areas. Single travelers should exercise special caution while traveling to beach areas, to the Atlantic Coast, and to other remote areas of the country.
Police coverage is extremely sparse outside of major urban areas, including in the remote beach communities on the Pacific Coast and Nicaragua’s Atlantic coast. Lack of adequate police coverage has resulted in these areas being used by drug traffickers and other criminal elements. Street crime and petty theft are common problems in Puerto Cabezas, Bluefields, and other urban areas along the Atlantic coast. Given the area’s geographical isolation, the Embassy’s ability to provide emergency services to U.S. citizens who choose to travel in the Atlantic coastal area is limited. Police presence is minimal on the Corn Islands as well.
Throughout Nicaragua, U.S. citizens should utilize hotels and guest houses which have security measures in place, including but not limited to rooms equipped with safes for securing valuables and travel documents and adequate access control precautions. U.S. citizens report that even in hotels with safes, items have gone missing.
Do not resist a robbery attempt. Many criminals have weapons, and most injuries and deaths have resulted when victims resisted. Do not hitchhike or go home with strangers, particularly from nightclubs. Do not accept rides from strangers at major bus terminals or border crossings. Travel in groups of two or more persons whenever possible. Use the same common sense while traveling in Nicaragua that you would in any high-crime area of a large U.S. city. Do not wear excessive jewelry or utilize your smart cellphone in a fashion that attracts attention to its inherent value. Do not carry large sums of money, other valuables, or ATM or credit cards that are not needed.
Do not leave valuables inside parked vehicles. U.S. citizens residing in Nicaragua are urged to review residential security procedures, including with their domestic employees, and strengthen security measures to help safeguard their houses.
Don’t buy counterfeit and pirated goods, even if they are widely available. Not only are the bootlegs illegal in the United States, if you purchase them you are breaking local law. Be wary when making purchases from street vendors or in markets. Buying pirated goods undermines legitimate businesses and can fund criminal organizations.
VICTIMS OF CRIME: If you or someone you know becomes the victim of a crime abroad, you should contact the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or consulate. We can:
- Replace a stolen passport.
- Help you find appropriate medical care if you are the victim of violent crimes such as assault or rape.
- Put you in contact with the appropriate police authorities, and if you want us to, we can contact family members or friends.
- Help you understand the local criminal justice process and direct you to local attorneys, although it is important to remember that local authorities are responsible for investigating and prosecuting the crime.
The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in Nicaragua is 118 in Spanish and 101 in English, though this is technically the tourism section of the police department.
Please see our information on victims of crime, including possible victim compensation programs in the United States.
Local Laws & Special Circumstances
CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While you are traveling in Nicaragua, you are subject to its laws even if you are a U.S. citizen. Foreign laws and legal systems can be vastly different from our own. Persons violating Nicaraguan laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned. Penalties for possessing, using, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Nicaragua are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. For example, under current law, possession of less than 20 grams of marijuana can carry a sentence of 6 months to 3 years in prison; possession of more than 20 grams of marijuana can carry a sentence of 5 to 15 years in prison.
Nicaragua’s judicial system is subject to political interference and suffers from widespread corruption. Laws are not enforced uniformly. In some instances, judicial orders to release prisoners have been ignored or significantly delayed by police and prison authorities. Detainees, both Nicaraguan and foreign, have been subject to imprisonment for lengthy periods without charges being filed against them. U.S. citizens should be aware that Embassy officials are limited in what they can do to assist detainees.
In Nicaragua, you may be taken in for questioning if you do not have your passport with you. Driving under the influence could land you immediately in jail. If you break local laws in Nicaragua, your U.S. passport won’t help you avoid arrest or prosecution. There are also some things that might be legal in the country you visit but still be illegal in the United States. You can be prosecuted in the United States for engaging in sexual conduct with children or for using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country regardless of the legality of these activities under that country’s laws. Counterfeit and pirated goods are illegal in the United States and if you purchase them in a foreign country, you may be breaking local law as well.
Arrest notifications in host country: While some countries will automatically notify the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate if a U.S. citizen is detained or arrested in that country, others may not. To ensure that the United States is aware of your circumstances, request that the police and prison officials notify the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate as soon as you are arrested or detained overseas.
Purchasing Property: U.S. citizens should be aware of the risks of purchasing real estate in Nicaragua and should exercise extreme caution before committing to invest in property. The 1979-90 Sandinista government expropriated approximately 28,000 real properties, many of which are still in dispute or pending resolution by the Nicaraguan government. Although the Nicaraguan government has resolved several thousand claims by U.S. citizens through compensation or the return of properties, there remain many unresolved claims registered with the Embassy.
Potential investors should engage competent local legal representation and investigate their purchases thoroughly in order to reduce the possibility of property disputes.
Aside from historic expropriations, the U.S. Embassy has also seen an increase in property disputes in recent years, and the Nicaraguan judicial system offers little relief when the purchase of a property winds up in court. The Embassy is aware of numerous cases in which buyers purchase property supported by what appear to be legal titles only to see themselves subsequently embroiled in legal battles when the titles are contested by an affected or otherwise interested third party. Once a property dispute enters the judicial arena, the outcome may be subject to corruption, political pressure, and influence peddling. Many coastal properties have been tied up in courts recently, leaving the buyer unable to proceed with the intended development pending lengthy and uncertain litigation. In other cases squatters have simply invaded the land while the police or judicial authorities are unable (or unwilling) to remove the trespassers.
Please note that Nicaraguan law currently prohibits any individual from buying beach-front property (including islands) unless the original land title was registered before the 1917 Nicaraguan Agrarian Reform Law or a title that was issued as a result of the 1987 Agrarian Reform Law; however, coastal properties with titles pre-dating 1917 are not risk-free . In 1987, the Nicaraguan Constitution established the property righ0ts of indigenous communities over territory they have traditionally occupied. In June 2009, Nicaragua passed the new Coastal Law, which stipulates that all oceanfront land within 50 meters of the high tide is under the zoning authority of the municipalities, but owners retain ownership of their property. Any construction or commercial activity along the shoreline must be approved by the municipalities. There is also a five meter ban on construction and commercial activity along lakes, lagoons, and rivers. Again, the Embassy advises extreme caution when considering the purchase of property in Nicaragua, especially coastal property.
Retired Residents Law: To establish residency, foreign retirees need to demonstrate a monthly foreign income or pension of at least USD$600, with an additional USD$200 for each family member dependent. Legal retiree residents of Nicaragua are exempt from import taxes for vehicles valued at less than USD$25,000.
Currency and Credit Cards: U.S. dollars are widely accepted throughout the country, and major credit cards are also typically accepted in hotels, restaurants, stores, and other businesses in urban and tourist areas. Visitors who need to change dollars are encouraged to do this at their hotel since this is typically the safest place. ATMs are available at banks and the larger hotels in addition to some shopping centers and gas stations in urban and tourist areas. However, individuals should exercise caution when using a teller machine since they are typically in or near uncontrolled areas and criminal elements can easily see them withdrawing cash. Traveler’s checks are accepted at a few major hotels and may also be exchanged for local currency at authorized exchange facilities ("casas de cambio"). Visitors will also find enterprising individuals - ‘cambistas’ - waving wads of cash in the street. Changing money in this fashion can be dangerous and is not recommended.
The U.S. Embassy has noted an increase in credit card fraud. Although local police authorities have made arrests in conjunction with credit card scam operations, the danger for abuse continues. Illegal use can include “skimming” or making a copy of the magnetic strip on the credit card or simply copying the number for later use.
U.S. citizens who do continue to use credit cards in Nicaragua are advised to check statements frequently to monitor for abuse and/or to ask banks to email them when transactions exceed a certain number or amount.
Disaster Preparedness: Nicaragua is prone to a wide variety of natural disasters, including earthquakes, hurricanes, and volcanic eruptions. Travelers should heed the advice of local disaster authorities if a natural disaster occurs. Anyone who is at a beach area when an earthquake occurs should be prepared to move swiftly to higher ground (when safe to do so) to avoid any possible tsunami that the quake might generate. General information about natural disaster preparedness is available via the Internet from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).
Boundary Disputes: On the Atlantic coast, nautical travelers should be aware that there is an ongoing boundary dispute with Colombia over the San Andres Island archipelago and the surrounding waters. In November 2012, a ruling by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in The Hague granted Colombia sovereignty over the islands of the San Andres archipelago and extended Nicaragua’s exclusive economic zone (EEZ) by approximately 90,000 km², but tensions over the area remain.
Nicaragua and Costa Rica have disputed the ownership and dredging rights of Harbor Head (sometimes referred to as Isla Calero), an area of approximately two square kilometers at the eastern termination of the San Juan River. Both Nicaragua and Costa Rica have sent security forces to the region, so travelers should exercise caution. The case is currently pending International Court of Justice resolution.
Travelers should also be aware that narcotics traffickers often use both the Atlantic and Pacific coastal waters.
Customs Regulations: U.S. citizens and mission/aid groups are reporting growing problems with the length of time to clear supplies through Nicaraguan customs. All groups trying to import supplies should contract well in advance of their visit with a recognized local customs broker for assistance, as the Embassy is limited in its ability to assist mission/aid groups in the expediting process.
Before excavating archaeological materials or agreeing to buy artifacts of historical value, all persons are strongly urged to consult with the National Patrimony Directorate of the Nicaraguan Institute of Culture. Nicaraguan law and a bilateral accord limit the acquisition, importation into the U.S., and commercialization of said goods. Severe criminal penalties may apply.
Please note that in order to import medicine you need the approval of the Ministry of Health’s Pharmacy Department. This regulation also applies to medication being donated for charity. To receive the approval you must submit a detailed list of all the medicine being imported, the expiration dates, and specify whether it is for personal use, retail, or for charity.
U.S. citizens planning to stay in Nicaragua for an extended period of time with the intention of bringing vehicles or household goods into the country should consult Nicaraguan customs officials prior to shipment.
Please see our Customs Information for additional information.
If you are a woman traveling abroad, please review our travel tips for Women Travelers
LGBT RIGHTS: There are no legal restrictions on same-sex sexual relations or the organization of LGBT events in Nicaragua. While same-sex relations are not typically accepted culturally, harassment and/or violence against LGBT travelers is not common. For more detailed information about LGBT rights in Nicaragua, you may review the State Department’s Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2012. For further information on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) travel, please read our LGBT Travel Information page.
Accessibility: While in Nicaragua, individuals with disabilities may find accessibility and accommodation very different from what you find in the United States. Nicaraguan law prohibits discrimination against persons with physical and mental disabilities, but in practice such discrimination is widespread in employment, education, access to health care, and the provision of state services.
There is limited to no accessibility in public transportation, including few sidewalks and road crossings. Government clinics and hospitals provide care for persons with disabilities, but the quality of care is generally poor.
Medical care is limited, particularly outside of Managua. While intermediate level medical care is available in Managua, only basic and limited emergency medical services are available in many of the smaller towns and villages outside of the capital. Ambulance services, where available, provide transportation and basic first aid only. More advanced medical equipment and some medications and treatments are not available in Nicaragua. Physicians and hospital personnel frequently do not speak English, and medical reports are written in Spanish.
In an emergency, individuals are taken to the nearest hospital that will accept a patient. This is usually a public hospital unless the individual or someone acting on their behalf indicates that they can pay for a private hospital. Payment for medical services is typically done on a cash basis, although some private hospitals will accept major credit cards for payment. U.S. health insurance plans are generally not accepted in Nicaragua, however, the Embassy has been informed that Hospital Metropolitano in Managua currently accepts Blue Cross Blue Shield for inpatient treatment and Tricare. As with any health care provider, we recommend you contact the hospital in advance to confirm coverage before committing to any service.
Tap water is not considered reliably potable in Nicaragua. All persons should drink only purified bottled water.
Individuals traveling to Nicaragua should ensure that all their routine vaccinations are up to date. Vaccinations against hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies, and typhoid are strongly recommended. A yellow fever vaccination is not required to enter Nicaragua unless the traveler has recently visited a country where yellow fever is endemic. Travelers taking prescription medications should bring an adequate supply with them when coming to Nicaragua. Many newer combination medications are not available in local pharmacies.
In July 2013, the Nicaraguan government declared an alert based on an increase in cases of dengue fever, H1N1 flu, and leptospirosis. We advise U.S. citizens to take appropriate precautions and consult with your medical professional for advice before you visit Nicaragua.
You can find good information on vaccinations and other health precautions on the CDC website. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad, consult the World Health Organization (WHO) website, which contains additional health information for travelers, including detailed country-specific health information.
Travel & Transportation
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in Nicaragua, you may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. Driving in Nicaragua poses many difficulties and risks, including mandatory arrest for drivers involved in accidents that result in death or serious injury until police are able to determine who is at fault. Driving is on the right side of the road in Nicaragua. Motorists driving to Nicaragua should use the principal highways and official border crossings at Guasaule, El Espino, and Las Manos between Nicaragua and Honduras and Penas Blancas between Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Although some of the principal highways connecting the major cities are in generally good condition, drivers should be aware that seasonal torrential rains take a heavy toll on roadbeds. With few exceptions, secondary roads are in poor repair, potholed, poorly lit, frequently narrow, and lack shoulders. Road travel after dark is especially hazardous in all areas of the country. Motorists are encouraged to prepare accordingly and to carry a cellular phone in case of an emergency.
In general, road signs are poor to non-existent. Bicycles, oxcarts, dogs, horses, and vehicles without lights are regularly encountered, even on main thoroughfares in Nicaragua. Motorcycles, often carrying several passengers, will dart in and out of traffic with little or no warning. Sidewalks are not common, so most pedestrians will walk on main roads – including busy thoroughfares—and often won’t look before crossing the streets. Many vehicles are in poor condition, travel very slowly, and break down without warning. Drivers should be especially careful on curves and hills, as many drivers will pass or park on blind corners. Speed limits vary depending on the type of road, but due to a lack of government resources, traffic rules are rarely enforced.
Due to the age and disrepair of many vehicles, many drivers will not use their turn signals. Rather, it is common for a vehicle operator to stick his hand out the window to signal a turn.
If you do drive in Nicaragua, you need to exercise caution, drive defensively, and make sure you have auto insurance.
Nicaraguan law requires that a driver be taken into custody for driving under the influence or being involved in an accident that causes serious injury or death, even if the driver is insured and appears not to have been at fault. The minimum detention period is 48 hours; however, detentions frequently last until a judicial decision is reached (often weeks or months), or until a waiver is signed by the injured party (usually as the result of a cash settlement). In accidents that result in death, drivers are usually detained until they reach an agreement with the family of the victim even if they are not at fault.
Visitors to Nicaragua might want to consider hiring a professional driver during their stay. Licensed drivers who are familiar with local roads can be hired through local car rental agencies. In case of accident, only the driver will be taken into custody.
Transit police conduct most traffic-related enforcement stops on foot at static locations marked by traffic cones in which one or more transit police officers will signal to a driver to pull over (police vehicle enforcement stops are less common). The Embassy has received a number of complaints from U.S. citizens who have been stopped by transit police authorities demanding bribes in order to avoid fines. Motorists in rental cars and those with foreign license plates are more likely to be stopped by transit police. Transit police have seized driver licenses and car registration documents from motorists who refuse or are unable to pay. Subsequently, these drivers have reported difficulties in recovering the seized documents. U.S. citizens are urged to ensure that their vehicles comply fully with Nicaraguan regulations, including being in possession of an emergency triangle and fire extinguisher, and that the vehicle is properly registered. If police authorities demand an on-the-spot payment, drivers should ask for the officer's name and badge number, as well as a receipt. To report any mistreatment by police, you can file a complaint directly with the National Police. Feel free to forward your complaint to the U.S. Consular Section in Managua as well. Rental car agencies should also be advised if their vehicles have been deemed negligent in meeting Nicaraguan transit regulations.
Avoid taking local buses. They are overcrowded, unsafe, and often frequented by pickpockets. Because of the conditions discussed above, traffic accidents often result in serious injury or death. This is most often true when large vehicles, such as buses or trucks, are involved. Vehicles involved in accidents in Nicaragua are not moved (even to clear traffic), until authorized by a police officer. Drivers who violate this norm may be held legally liable for the accident.
Regulations governing transit are administered by the National Police. For specific information concerning Nicaraguan driver’s permits, vehicle inspection, road tax, and mandatory insurance, you may wish to refer to the the National Police web site. You may also contact the Embassy of Nicaragua in Washington, D.C. for further information.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Also, we suggest that you visit the website of Nicaragua’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety information.
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the government of Nicaragua’s Civil Aviation Authority as not being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Nicaragua’s air carrier operations. Further information may be found on the FAA’s safety assessment page.