MexicoOfficial Name: United Mexican States
Six months minimum validity required for entry
BLANK PASSPORT PAGES:
One page required for entry stamp
TOURIST VISA REQUIRED:
Tourist card/entry permit may be obtained at airport upon arrival or at land border crossings
CURRENCY RESTRICTIONS FOR ENTRY:
10,000 USD or equivalent max
CURRENCY RESTRICTIONS FOR EXIT:
10,000 USD or equivalent max
Embassies and Consulates
Paseo de la Reforma 305
Mexico, D.F., Mexico C.P. 06500
Telephone: +(52)(55) 5080-2000
Emergency After-Hours Telephone: +(52)(55) 5080-2000, ext. 0 / (01)(55) 5080-2000, ext. 0 (within Mexico) /5080-2000 (within Mexico City)
Fax: +(52)(55) 5080-2201
U.S. Consulate General Ciudad Juarez
Paseo de la Victoria #3650
Fracc. Partido Senecú
Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico C.P. 32543
Telephone: +(52)(656) 227-3000 / (044) (656) 215-0725
Emergency After-Hours Telephone: +(52)(656) 215-0725 / (044)(656) 215-0725 (If calling from a Ciudad Juarez land line. From other parts in Mexico dial 045 instead of 044)
U.S. Consulate General Guadalajara
Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico C.P. 44100
Telephone: +(52)(33) 3268-2100 / (01)(33) 3268-2100 (within Mexico)
Emergency After-Hours Telephone: +(52)(55) 5080-2000, ext. 0 / (01)(55) 5080-2000, ext. 0 (within Mexico)
Fax: +(52)(33) 3826-6549 / (01)(33) 3825-1951 (within Mexico)
U.S. Consulate General Hermosillo
Monterrey #141 entre las calles
Rosales y Galeana
Hermosillo, Sonora, México C.P. 83260
Telephone: +(52)(662) 289-3500 / (01)(662) 289-3500 (within Mexico)
Emergency After-Hours Telephone: +(52)(55) 5080-2000, ext. 0 / (01)(55) 5080-2000, ext. 0 (within Mexico)
Fax: +(662) 217-2571
U.S. Consulate General Matamoros
Calle Primera #2002
México C.P. 87330
Telephone: +(52)(868) 812-4402 / (01)(868) 812-4402 (within Mexico)
Emergency After-Hours Telephone: +(52)(55) 5080-2000, ext. 0 / (01)(55) 5080-2000, ext. 0 (within Mexico)
Fax: +(52)(868) 816-0883
U.S. Consulate General Merida
Calle 60 No. 338-K x 29 y 31
Col. Alcala Martin
Merida, Yucatan, Mexico C.P. 97050
Telephone: +(52)(999) 942-5700 / (01)(999) 942-5700 (within Mexico) / 942-5700 (within Merida)
Fax: +(52)(999) 942-5759
U.S. Consulate General Monterrey
Prolongación Ave. Alfonso Reyes No. 150
Col. Valle Poniente
Santa Catarina, Nuevo León
Telephone: +(52)(81) 8047-3100 / (01)(81) 8047-3100 (within Mexico)
Fax: +(52)(81) 8342-5433
U.S. Consulate General Nogales
Calle San José s/n
Fraccionamiento los Alamos
Nogales, Sonora, Mexico C. P. 84065&
Telephone: +(52)(631) 311 - 8150 / (01)(631) 311-8150 (within Mexico)
Fax: +(52)(631) 313 - 4652
U.S. Consulate General Nuevo Laredo
Calle Allende 3330, Col. Jardin
Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico C.P. 88260
Telephone: +(52)(867) 714-0512, ext. 3128 / (01)(867) 714-0512 (within Mexico)
Fax: +(52)(867) 714-0512, ext. 3197
U.S. Consulate General Tijuana
Paseo de las Culturas s/n
Mesa de Otay
Delegación Centenario C.P. 22425
Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico C.P.2245
Telephone: +(52)(664) 977-2000 / (01)(664) 977-2000 (within Mexico)
Emergency After-Hours Telephone: 619-692-2154 (from the U.S) / 001-619-692-2154 (within Mexico)
U.S. Consular Agency - Acapulco
Hotel Continental Emporio
Costera M. Alemán 121 - Office 14
Acapulco, Guerro, Mexico C.P. 39670
Telephone: +(52)(744) 481-0100 or +(52)(744) 484-0300
Emergency After-Hours Telephone:+(52)(55) 5080-2000, ext. 0 / (01)(55) 5080-2000, ext. 0 (within Mexico)
Fax: +(52)(744) 484-0300
Public Office Hours: Monday-Friday, 9:00am-3:00pm (call or email for an appointment.)
U.S. Consular Agency - Los Cabos
Las Tiendas de Palmilla L-B221
Km. 27.5 Carretera Transpeninsular
San José del Cabo, Baja California Sur Mexico C.P. 23406
Telephone: +(52)(624) 143-3566 / (01)(624) 143-3566 (within Mexico)
Fax: +(52)(624) 143-6750
Public Office Hours: Monday-Friday, 9:00am-2:00pm (call or email for an appointment.)
U.S. Consular Agency - Cancun
Blvd. Kukulcan Km 13 ZH
Torre La Europea, Despacho 301
Cancun, Quintana Roo, Mexico C.P. 77500
Telephone: +(52)(998) 883-0272 / (01)(998) 883-0272 (within Mexico)
Fax: +(52)(998) 883-1373
Public Office Hours: Monday-Friday, 8:00am-1:00pm (call or email for an appointment.)
U.S. Consular Agency - Mazatlan
Hotel Playa Mazatlan
Playa Gaviotas No. 202 Local 10
Mazatlán, Sinaloa Mexico C.P. 82110
Telephone: +(52)(669) 916-5889 / (01)(669) 916-5889 (within Mexico)
Fax: +(52)(669) 916-5889
Public Office Hours: Monday-Friday, 9:00am-1:00pm (call or email for an appointment.)
U.S. Consular Agency - Oaxaca
Macedonio Alcala No. 407, Office 20
Oaxaca, Oaxaca, Mexico C.P. 68000
Telephone: +(52)(951) 514-3054 / (01)(951) 514-3054 (within Mexico)
Fax: +(52)(951) 516-2701
Public Office Hours: Monday-Friday, 10:00am-3:00pm (call or email for an appointment.)
U.S. Consular Agency - Piedras Negras
Abasolo #211, Local #3, Centro
Piedras Negras, Coahuila, Mexico C.P. 26000
Telephone: +(52)(878) 782-5586 or +(52)(878) 782-8664 / (01)(878) 782-5586 or (01)(878) 782-8664 (within Mexico)
Fax: +(52)(878) 782-8707
Public Office Hours: Monday-Friday, 9:00am-12:00pm (call or email for an appointment.)
U.S. Consular Agency - Playa Del Carmen
"The Palpa" Calle 1 Sur, between Avenida 15 and Avenida 20
Playa Del Carmen, Quintana Roo, Mexico C.P. 77710
Telephone: +(52)(984) 873-0303 / (01)(984) 873-0303 (within Mexico)
Fax: +(52)(984) 873-0481
Public Office Hours: Monday-Friday, 9:00am-1:00pm (call or email for an appointment.)
U.S. Consular Agency - Puerto Vallarta
Paseo de Los Cocoteros 85 Sur
Paradise Plaza - Local L-7
Nuevo Vallarta, Nayarit, Mexico C.P 63732
Telephone: +(52)(322) 222-0069 / (01)(322) 222-0069 (within Mexico)
Fax: +(52)(322) 223-0074
Public Office Hours: Monday-Friday, 8:30am-12:30pm (call or email for an appointment.)
U.S. Consular Agency - San Miguel de Allende
Plaza La Luciernaga, Libramiento Jose Manuel Zavala No. 165, Locales 4 y 5
Colonia La Luciernaga
San Miguel Allende, Guanajuato, Mexico C.P. 37745
Telephone: +(52)(415) 152-2357 ? (01)(415) 152-2357
Fax: +(52)(415) 152-1588
Public Office Hours: Monday-Friday, 9:00am-1:00pm (call or email for an appointment.)
Mexico is a Spanish-speaking country consisting of 31 states and one federal district. The capital is Mexico City. Mexico is an upper middle income economy, ranked by the World Bank as the thirteenth largest in the world in terms of GDP. The climate ranges from tropical to arid, and the terrain consists of coastal lowlands, central high plateaus, deserts, and mountains of up to 18,000 feet.
Many cities throughout Mexico are popular tourist destinations for U.S. citizens, and in 2014 U.S. citizens continued to account for the largest foreign tourist population visiting Mexico. Travelers should note that location-specific information contained below is not confined solely to those cities identified, but can reflect conditions throughout Mexico. Although the majority of visitors to Mexico thoroughly enjoy their stay, a small number experience difficulties and serious inconveniences.
Please read the State Department’s Fact Sheet on Mexico and the Mexico Travel Warning for additional information.
Entry, Exit & Visa Requirements
For the latest entry requirements, visit the Mexican National Institute of Migration’s (Instituto Nacional de Migración, INM) website, the Secretary of Tourism’s manual on tourist entry, or contact the Embassy of Mexico at 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006, telephone (202) 736-1600, or any Mexican consulate in the United States.
You must present a valid U.S. passport or passport card in order to enter Mexico. Although documents may not be routinely checked along the land border, Mexican authorities at immigration checkpoints approximately 25 kilometers from the U.S. border will often conduct vehicle and document inspections and require valid travel documents and an entry permit or Forma Migratoria Multiple (FMM). If you enter by land and travel further than 25 kilometers into Mexico, you should stop at an immigration checkpoint to obtain an FMM, even if not explicitly directed to do so by Mexican officials. Beyond the border zone, all non-Mexican citizens must have valid immigration documents (an FMM or temporary or permanent resident card) regardless of the original place of entry. Failure to present an FMM or other valid immigration document can result in detention by immigration authorities and/or delays or missed flights because airlines may insist that a valid immigration document be obtained from Mexican immigration authorities before issuing a boarding pass.
All U.S. citizens traveling outside of the United States by land or sea (except closed-loop cruises) are required to present a Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative (WHTI) compliant document, such as a passport or a passport card, to return to the United States.
Travelers with passports that are found to be washed, mutilated, or damaged may be refused entry to Mexico. Please be sure to apply for a U.S. passport well in advance of anticipated travel.
All U.S. citizens entering Mexico by sea, including U.S. citizens engaged in recreational or commercial fishing in Mexican territorial waters, are required to have an FMM or other valid immigration document. Additionally, boats engaged in commercial activities in Mexican waters, including sports fishing vessels, must be inspected and permitted by the Secretariat of Communications and Transportations (SCT), which publishes Spanish-language information on Mexican boating permit requirements.
Mexican immigration regulations accept the U.S. passport card for entry into Mexico by air. However, travelers flying from Mexico to the United States must present a valid U.S. passport. Further information on the passport card can be found on our website.
If you are a legal permanent resident, you may board flights to the United States from Mexico using an I-551 Permanent Resident card as your travel document.
HIV/AIDS Restrictions: The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Mexico.
Prior Criminal Convictions: U.S. citizens should be aware that Mexican law permits immigration authorities to deny foreigners entry into Mexico if they have been charged or convicted of a serious crime in Mexico or elsewhere.
Minors: Special requirements apply to minor children using travel documents and who are not being accompanied by a parent or legal guardian.
The Mexican National Immigration Institute (INM) requires a consent document for minors (under 18 years of age) traveling if the minor is DEPARTING Mexico, by air or sea, alone or with someone other than a parent or legal guardian who is of legal age (grandparent, uncle/aunt, school group leader, etc.), and is using Mexican documents to travel (birth certificate, passport, temporary or permanent Mexican residency).
The minor will be required to present a document showing the consent to travel from at least one parent (or legal guardian) in order to leave Mexico. A parent may fill out the authorization document online on INM's website. This document does NOT need to be notarized or have an apostille. Rather, the parent must print three copies and obtain official stamps from INM at the airport on the day of travel prior to passenger check-in with the airline. For more information on this process please click here. For a video, click here. Please note the online form, presentation, and video are in Spanish only.
Travel consent documents may also be independently-produced, but they must be in Spanish (English versions must be accompanied by a Spanish translation.), contain several pieces of required data, and be notarized or have an apostille. For information, fees, and how to make an appointment for notarial services at the U.S. Embassy in Mexico City, please click here. To view a sample travel consent letter, click here.
Importantly, if either the INM website form or an independently-produced document is used, it is valid only for 180 days, for one trip only (i.e. not multiple trips), and must be accompanied by copies of the minor’s passport (biographic page containing photo), birth certificate, parent or legal guardian’s valid, government-issued identification, and valid, government-issued identification for the adult accompanying the minor (if applicable).
According to INM, this regulation does NOT apply to a minor traveling with one parent or legal guardian (i.e. a consent letter from the missing parent is NOT required).
The regulation DOES apply to dual national minors (Mexican plus another nationality), since under Mexican law the minor is required to enter and depart Mexico using Mexican documents. After departing Mexico with a Mexican passport, the minor would then enter the United States using his/her U.S. passport.
The U.S. Embassy in Mexico City has received numerous reports of U.S. citizens being required to provide notarized consent forms for circumstances falling outside of the categories listed above and/or being asked for such permission at land border crossings. Accordingly, the Embassy recommends all minors traveling without both parents carry a notarized consent letter at all times in the event airline or Mexican immigration officials request one.
Travelers should contact the Mexican Embassy, the nearest Mexican consulate, or INM for more information.
Tourist Travel: U.S. citizens do not require a visa or a tourist card for tourist stays of 72 hours or less within the 20-30 kilometer “border zone." U.S. citizens traveling as tourists beyond the “border zone,” or entering Mexico by air, must pay a fee to obtain a tourist card, known as an FMM, available from Mexican consulates, Mexican border crossing points, Mexican tourism offices, airports within the border zone, and most airlines serving Mexico. The fee for the tourist card is generally included in the price of a plane ticket for travelers arriving by air. U.S. citizens fill out the FMM form; Mexican immigration retains the larger portion, and the traveler is given the smaller right-hand portion. This FMM is normally red, white, and green in color. It is extremely important to safeguard this form. Mexican immigration agents and federal police have the authority to ask for proof of legal status in Mexico and, on occasion, have detained U.S. citizens without documents.
Travelers should always carry a photocopy of their passport data page and FMM. Prior to exiting the country at a Mexican immigration check point, visitors are required to turn in their FMM. Travelers who lose this form can be fined and have their departures delayed. Travelers who enter Mexico by land and fail to obtain an FMM are usually required to pay a fine when exiting the country, but may be detained and deported from the interior of the country. For more information visit the INM website. It is also important that travelers confirm that they are interacting with a bona fide Mexican immigration official before accepting guidance or instruction regarding immigration forms. In the past, impersonators have fraudulently collected fees and issued bogus documents to unsuspecting visitors.
Business Travel: Upon arrival in Mexico, business travelers, like tourists, must complete the FMM form and can be authorized to stay for up to 180 days. However, the Mexican immigration officer who interviews the traveler upon his/her arrival makes the final decision on how many days will be granted. Upon admission, business travelers are authorized to conduct business, but are not authorized to work.
If you are entering Mexico for purposes other than tourism or business, or for stays of longer than 180 days, you need a visa and valid U.S. passport prior to entry. U.S. citizens planning to work or live in Mexico should apply for the appropriate Mexican visa prior to traveling at the Mexican Embassy in Washington, DC, or at the nearest Mexican consulate in the United States.
Vehicle Permits: Foreign tourists wishing to travel beyond the border zone with their vehicle must obtain a temporary import permit. If they do not, they risk having their vehicle confiscated by Mexican customs officials. At present, the only exceptions to the requirement are for vehicles traveling in the Baja Peninsula and those vehicles covered by the “Only Sonora” program in Western Sonora. This program generally covers the area west of Mexican Federal Highway 15 between the Arizona border and the Gulf of California, ending in Empalme. Foreign vehicles entering Mexico through land border crossings in Sonora do not need temporary import permits if they remain within the zone established by the program. All foreign tourists, however, must have their valid immigration documents with them at all times while traveling through Mexico, regardless of whether or not they must register their vehicles, and the registered owner must be in the vehicle. For details on the program, visit the “Only Sonora” website (Spanish only).
Changes to Mexican immigration and customs laws will likely affect customs regulations on the importation of vehicles. U.S. citizens can find information on Mexican customs regulations at http://www.sat.gob.mx/aduanas/vehiculos/Paginas/default.aspx (Spanish) and http://www.sat.gob.mx/aduanas/vehiculos/importacion_temporal/Paginas/english_version.aspx (English).
To be eligible for a temporary import permit, foreign tourists must submit evidence of citizenship, the vehicle title, a vehicle registration certificate, a driver's license, and pay the processing fee at either a Banjercito (Mexican Army Bank) branch located at a Mexican Customs (Aduana) office at the port of entry, or at one of the Mexican consulates located in the United States. Pursuant to recent changes in Mexican immigration law, foreigners with temporary or permanent resident immigration status may not obtain a temporary import permit. (This change does not apply to temporary resident students.) Only tourists who come to Mexico for less than 180 days are eligible to acquire a temporary importation permit for their vehicle.
Mexican law also requires depositing/posting a bond at a Banjercito office to guarantee the export of the car from Mexico before a date determined at the time of the application. For this purpose, drivers will need to make a credit card or cash deposit of between 200 and 400 USD, depending on the make/model/year of the vehicle. In order to recover the bond, travelers must depart the country before the expiration of the allotted temporary import time period and request their refund at any Mexican Customs office immediately prior to departing Mexico.
Vehicle permits cannot be obtained at checkpoints in the interior of Mexico. If the permit is not obtained before entering Mexico or at the Banjercito branch at the port of entry, do not proceed past the border zone. If you have not obtained the proper permit, you may be incarcerated, fined, and/or have your vehicle seized at immigration/customs checkpoints. In addition, Mexico also requires an emissions certificate for vehicles being permanently imported into Mexico. There are also restrictions on the age of vehicles being permanently imported but no such restrictions for cars under temporary permits. For further information about all vehicle import issues, visit the website for Mexican Customs (Aduanas).
You should avoid individuals who wait outside vehicle permit offices and offer to obtain the permits without waiting in line, even if they appear to be government officials. There have been reports of fraudulent or counterfeit permits being issued adjacent to the vehicle import permit office in Nuevo Laredo, Ciudad Juarez, and other border areas.
Dual Nationality: Mexican law bestows citizenship to anyone born in Mexico, as well as those born abroad to Mexican parents. U.S. citizens who are also Mexican citizens are considered by local authorities to be Mexican. Because consular notification is not required if the detainee has Mexican citizenship, dual nationality status can delay notification of arrests and other emergencies or hamper U.S. Government efforts to provide consular services. Dual U.S.-Mexican nationals are subject to compulsory military service in Mexico. If you have both U.S. and Mexican nationalities, you must carry proof of citizenship of both countries. Under Mexican law, dual nationals entering or departing Mexico must identify themselves as Mexican. Under U.S. law, dual nationals entering the United States must identify themselves as U.S. citizens.
Customs Regulations: For information about U.S. customs, please refer to our Customs Information Page. U.S. citizens bringing gifts to friends and relatives in Mexico should be prepared to demonstrate to Mexican customs officials the origin and value of the gifts. U.S. citizens entering Mexico at land borders can bring in gifts with a value of up to 75 USD duty-free, except for alcohol and tobacco products. U.S. citizens entering Mexico by air or sea can bring in gifts with a value of up to 300 USD duty-free. Please refer to Mexico’s customs guide for passengers for more specific information, including requirements related to declaring cash or other financial instruments exceeding 10,000 USD or the equivalent.
Personal Effects: Tourists are allowed to bring in personal effects duty-free. Per Mexican customs regulations, in addition to clothing, personal effects may include one camera, one personal computer, one CD player, 5 DVDs, 20 music CDs, and one cellular phone. Tourists carrying such items, even if duty-free, should enter the "Merchandise to Declare" lane at the customs checkpoint. Travelers should be prepared to pay any assessed duty on items in excess of these allowances. Failure to declare personal effects may result in the seizure of the items, plus the seizure of any vehicle in which the goods were transported, for attempted smuggling. Recovery of a seized vehicle may involve payment of a substantial fine and attorney's fees. See also the “Firearms Penalties” section below regarding Mexico’s strict laws and penalties regarding the import of firearms or ammunition.
Temporary Imports/Exports: Mexican customs authorities enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or exportation from Mexico of items such as cars, trucks, trailers, boats, antiquities, medications, medical equipment, business equipment, etc. This includes a requirement to obtain a temporary import permit for private vessels visiting a Mexican marina. Prior to importing or exporting, contact the Mexican Embassy or one of the Mexican consulates in the United States for specific information regarding customs requirements.
Donations of Goods: U.S. citizens traveling to Mexico with goods intended for donation within Mexico, or traveling through Mexico with goods intended for donation in another country, should be aware of Mexican Customs regulations prohibiting the importation of used clothing and textiles or other used goods into Mexico, even as charitable gifts. The importation of all medicines and medical equipment for charitable purposes must be approved by Mexican Customs in advance; failure to obtain the proper import permit(s) will likely result in the confiscation of the medical supplies. Expired medications cannot be imported under any circumstances. Individuals or groups wishing to make charitable donations should check with Mexican Customs for the list of prohibited items, and should hire an experienced customs broker to ensure compliance with Mexican law. The individual or benevolent group, not the customs broker, will be held responsible for any fines or the confiscation of the goods if the documentation is incorrect. For further information, visit the website for Mexican Customs (Aduanas)
Mexican authorities require that all international transit through Mexico of persons and merchandise destined for Central or South America enter Mexico only at the Los Indios Bridge located south of Harlingen, Texas on Route 509. The U.S. Consulate General in Matamoros is the nearest consulate to Los Indios Bridge and may be contacted for up-to-date information by calling 011-52-868-812-4402 ext. 2062 or 2069, or by checking its website, which lists in English the most common items prohibited from entry into Mexico. Additional customs information can be found on the U.S. Customs and Border Protection website.
Safety and Security
Please review the Department of State’s Travel Warning for Mexico, which provides updated and detailed information about security issues affecting the country on a state-by-state basis. Millions of U.S. citizens visit Mexico safely each year. However, crime and violence affect many parts of the country, urban and rural. Remain alert and be aware of your surroundings at all times, particularly when visiting areas identified in the Travel Warning with special advisories. In its efforts to combat violence, the Mexican government has deployed federal police and military troops to various parts of the country. Government checkpoints, often staffed by military personnel, have been erected in many parts of the country, especially, but not exclusively, near the border. U.S. citizens are advised to cooperate with personnel at government checkpoints when traveling on Mexican highways.
To stay connected:
- Enroll in the Smart Traveler Enrollment Program so we can keep you up to date with important safety and security announcements.
- Follow the Bureau of Consular Affairs on Twitter and Facebook.
- Bookmark the Bureau of Consular Affairs website, which contains the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts as well as the Worldwide Caution.
- Follow the U.S. Embassy in Mexico on Twitter and visiting the Embassy’s website.
- In the event of an emergency, contact us at 1-888-407-4747 toll-free within the United States and Canada, or via a regular toll line, 1-202-501-4444, from other countries.
- · Take some time before traveling to consider your personal security and checking for useful tips for traveling safely abroad.
Demonstrations: Demonstrations are common and occur in all parts of the country. Even demonstrations intended to be peaceful can turn confrontational and escalate into violence. Protesters in Mexico may block traffic on roads, including major thoroughfares, or take control of toll booths on highways. U.S. citizens are urged to avoid areas of demonstrations, and to exercise caution if in the vicinity of any protests. Travelers who encounter protesters demanding unofficial tolls are generally allowed to pass upon payment. Travelers are urged not to exit from major highways. U.S. citizens should avoid participating in demonstrations and other activities that might be deemed political by the authorities as the Mexican Constitution prohibits political activities by foreigners; such actions may result in detention and/or deportation.
CRIME: Crime in Mexico continues to occur at a high rate and can be violent. Street crime, ranging from pick-pocketing to armed robbery, is a serious problem in most major cities. Carjacking is also common (see the Travel Warning for Mexico for more specific information). Rates of kidnappings and extortions in parts of Mexico have risen sharply in recent years, driven largely by violence associated with transnational criminal groups and increasingly smaller street gangs.
The Mexican government makes a considerable effort to protect foreign visitors traveling to major tourist destinations. As a result, resort areas and tourist destinations in Mexico generally do not see high levels of violence and crime. Nevertheless, the security situation poses serious risks for anyone, including U.S. citizens. U.S. citizen victims of crime in Mexico are encouraged to report incidents to the police and to the nearest U.S. consular office.
The Mexican government has taken significant steps to strengthen its law enforcement capabilities at the federal level. However, state and local police forces continue to suffer from a lack of training and funding and are a weak deterrent to criminals, who are often armed with superior weapons. In some areas, municipal police are widely suspected of colluding with organized criminal groups. In other areas, criminal organizations specifically target police officers. Because of the dangerous situation in which police officers operate, all travelers are advised to take a non-threatening posture when interacting with police and to cooperate with police instructions. We further advise travelers to avoid any areas where public security or law enforcement operations are being actively carried out.
Pirated Merchandise: Counterfeit and pirated goods are widely available in Mexico. Their sale is largely controlled by organized crime. Purchase for personal use is not criminalized in Mexico; however, bringing these goods back to the United States may result in forfeitures and/or fines.
Personal Property: Travelers should always leave valuables and irreplaceable items in a safe place, or avoid bringing them at all. Visitors are encouraged to make use of hotel safes, avoid wearing expensive jewelry, clothing, or accessories, and carry only the cash or credit cards that will be needed on each outing. There have been significant numbers of incidents of pick pocketing, purse snatching, and hotel-room theft. Pickpocketing is common on public transportation.
Do not leave valuables in rental vehicles, even when locked. Some travelers have had their passports stolen from their bags at airports. Remember to safeguard your passport within a zipper pocket or other safe enclosure so that it cannot be easily removed from your person or your luggage. Take steps to protect your passport even after passing through security and while waiting in a departure lounge to board your flight.
Business travelers should be aware that theft can occur even in seemingly secure locations. Briefcases, laptops, and similar items are regularly stolen at Mexico City’s Benito Juarez International Airport and at business-class hotels. Passengers arriving at Mexican airports who need pesos should use the exchange counters or Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs) in the arrival/departure gate area, where access is restricted, rather than changing money after passing through customs, where they can be observed by criminals. A number of U.S. citizens have been arrested for using counterfeit currency they had earlier received as change. If you receive what you believe to be a counterfeit bank note, bring it to the attention of Mexican law enforcement.
Personal Safety: Visitors should be aware of their surroundings at all times, even when in areas generally considered safe, and should exercise caution, particularly at night. Women traveling alone are especially vulnerable. Some U.S. citizens have reported being sexually assaulted, robbed of personal property, or abducted and then held hostage while their credit cards were used at various businesses or ATMs. Individuals who have been targeted were often walking alone in isolated locations. Be very cautious in general when using ATMs in Mexico. If you must use an ATM, it should be accessed only during the business day at large protected facilities (preferably inside commercial establishments, rather than at glass-enclosed, highly visible ATMs on streets). Travelers to remote areas should be aware that they may be far away from appropriate medical services, banking facilities (such as ATMs), and law enforcement or consular assistance in an emergency.
Kidnapping: The number of kidnappings reported throughout Mexico is of particular concern. Both local and expatriate communities have been victimized. Mexican government statistics indicate that kidnappings increased 20 percent in 2013 compared to 2012. Another study indicated that in 2013, only 1,698 kidnappings – out of an estimated 131,946 – were reported to police, who have been implicated in some of these incidents. One hundred fifty kidnappings of U.S. citizens were reported to the U.S. Embassy and consulates in Mexico in 2014.
While kidnappings can occur anywhere, the states with the highest numbers of overall kidnappings reported in 2013 were Tamaulipas, Guerrero, Michoacán, Mexico State, and Morelos. The state of Tamaulipas is of particular concern for kidnappings. Public and private passenger buses traveling through Tamaulipas are sometimes targeted by organized criminal groups. These groups sometimes take all passengers hostage and demand ransom payments. On other occasions these groups single out passengers who are removed from buses and held for ransom.
U.S. citizens are encouraged to lower their personal profiles and to avoid displaying indicators of wealth such as expensive or expensive-looking jewelry, watches, or cameras. U.S. citizens are encouraged to maintain awareness of their surroundings and avoid situations in which they may be isolated or stand out as potential victims.
Kidnappings in Mexico have included traditional, "express," and "virtual" kidnappings. Victims of traditional kidnappings are physically abducted and held captive until a ransom is paid for their release. "Express" kidnappings are those in which a victim is abducted for a short time and forced to withdraw money, usually from an ATM, then released. A "virtual" kidnapping is an extortion by deception scheme wherein a victim is contacted by phone and convinced to isolate themselves from family and friends until a ransom is paid. The victim is coerced (by threat of violence) to remain isolated and to provide phone numbers for the victim's family or loved ones. The victim's family is then contacted and a ransom for the "kidnapped" extracted. Recently, some travelers to Mexico staying at hotels as guests have been targets of such "virtual" kidnapping schemes.
Casinos, sportsbooks, or other gambling establishments and adult entertainment establishments are of particular safety concern. U.S. government personnel are specifically prohibited from patronizing these establishments in the states of Coahuila, Durango, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, San Luis Potosi, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Jalisco, Colima, and Nayarit.
Credit/Debit Card "Skimming": Exercise caution when using credit or debit cards. There have been reports of instances in which U.S. citizens in Mexico have had their card numbers “skimmed” and the money in their debit accounts stolen or their credit cards fraudulently charged. (“Skimming” is the theft of credit card information by an employee of a legitimate merchant or bank manually copying down numbers, using a magnetic stripe reader, or using a camera and skimmer installed in an ATM.) The risk of physical theft of credit or debit cards also exists. To prevent such theft, the Embassy recommends that travelers keep close track of their personal belongings and that they only carry what they need. Most restaurants and other businesses will bring the credit card machine to your table so that you can keep the card in your possession at all times. If travelers choose to use credit cards, they should regularly check their account status to ensure there are no unauthorized transactions.
Buses and Public Transportation: Whenever possible, visitors should travel by bus only during daylight hours and only by first-class conveyance. Although there have been several reports of bus hijackings and robberies on toll roads, buses on toll roads have experienced a markedly lower rate of incidents than (second- and third-class) buses that travel the less secure "free" highways. Although the police have made progress in bringing this type of crime under control, armed robberies of busses still occur, including armed robberies of local commuter buses traveling within Mexico City and to tourist sites such as the pyramids of Teotihuacan. Metro (subway) robberies are frequent in Mexico City, especially during peak travel times. If riding the metro or the city bus system, U.S. citizens should take extreme care with valuables and belongings.
Taxis: Robberies and assaults on passengers in taxis not affiliated with a taxi stand (“libre taxis”) are frequent and can be violent, with passengers subjected to beating, shooting, and sexual assault. U.S. citizens visiting Mexico should avoid taking any taxi not summoned by telephone or contacted in advance, including “libre” and Volkswagen beetle taxis. When in need of a taxi, telephone a radio taxi or "sitio" (regulated taxi stand – pronounced "C-T-O"), and ask the dispatcher for the driver's name and the taxi's license plate number. Ask the hotel concierge or other responsible individual to write down the license plate number of the cab you are taking.
U.S. Embassy employees in Mexico City are prohibited from using “libre” taxis, or any taxis hailed on the street, and are authorized to use only “sitio” taxis. Passengers arriving at any airport in Mexico should take only authorized airport taxis after pre-paying the fare at one of the special booths located and well publicized inside the airport.
Harassment/Extortion: In some instances, U.S. citizens have become victims of harassment, mistreatment, and extortion by alleged Mexican law enforcement, immigration and other officials. Mexican authorities have cooperated in investigating such cases, but one must have the officer's name, badge number, and patrol car number to pursue a complaint effectively. Please note this information if you have a problem with police or other officials. In addition, tourists should be wary of persons representing themselves as police officers or immigration or other officials. When in doubt, ask for identification. Be aware that offering a bribe to a public official to avoid a ticket or other penalty is a crime in Mexico.
One extortion technique, known as the “grandparent scam”, involves calls placed by persons alleging to be attorneys or government employees claiming that a person’s relative – nearly always a purported grandchild – has been in a car accident in Mexico and has been arrested/detained. The caller asks for a large sum of money to ensure the subject’s release. When the recipient of the call checks on their family member, they discover that the entire story is false. If the alleged detainee cannot be located in the U.S. and the family has reason to believe that the person did, in fact, travel to Mexico, contact the U.S. Embassy or nearest U.S. Consulate for assistance in determining if they have been detained by authorities. Further information on international financial scams is available on our website. Beware of possible scams involving inflated prices for tourist-related goods and services, and avoid patronizing restaurants and other service providers that do not have clearly listed prices. You should check with your hotel for the names of reputable establishments and service providers in the area. When using credit cards for payment you should try to maintain direct visibility of the person swiping the card in the machine to protect against credit card skimming.
Sexual Assault: Rape and sexual assault continue to be serious problems in resort and other areas. Many of these incidents occur at night or during the early morning hours, in hotel rooms, or on deserted beaches. Acquaintance rape is a serious problem. Hotel workers, taxi drivers, and security personnel have been implicated in many cases. Women should avoid being alone, particularly in isolated areas and at night. It is imperative that victims file a police report, which should include a “rape kit” exam, against the perpetrator(s) as soon as possible at the nearest police station. There have been several cases where the victim traveled back to the U.S. without filing a police report or undergoing a rape exam; their attempts to document their case later on lacked credibility with local Mexican authorities.
There have been instances of contamination or drugging of drinks to gain control over the patron.
See the information under "Special Circumstances" below regarding Spring Break in Mexico if you are considering visiting Mexican resort areas between February and April, when thousands of U.S. college students traditionally arrive in those areas. Additional information designed specifically for traveling students is also available on our Students Abroad website.
Organized Crime and Violence in Mexico: Mexican criminal organizations are engaged in a violent struggle to control trafficking routes and other criminal activity including kidnappings and extortion. Recent attacks and persistent security concerns have prompted the Department of State to urge U.S. citizens to defer nonessential travel to certain parts of Mexico and to advise U.S. citizens residing or traveling in those areas to exercise extreme caution. For updated and more detailed information on these areas and the threats involved, please refer to the Travel Warning for Mexico.
Criminal organizations have occasionally targeted unsuspecting individuals, who cross the border on a regular and predictable basis traveling between known destinations, as a way to smuggle drugs to the United States. They affix drugs to the undercarriage of the traveler’s car while it is parked in Mexico. Once in the United States, members of the organization remove the packages while the vehicle is unattended. If you are a frequent border crosser, you should vary your routes and travel times as well as closely monitor your vehicle to avoid being targeted.
VICTIMS OF CRIME: If you or someone you know becomes the victim of a crime in Mexico, you should contact the local police to file a Mexican police report. You should also inform the nearest U.S. embassy, consulate or consular agency (see the Department of State’s list of embassies and consulates). Do not rely on hotel/restaurant/tour company management to file a police report for you. The U.S. Embassy or Consulate cannot file a police report on your behalf, but we can:
- Replace a stolen passport. The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or consulate.
- Help you find appropriate medical care if you are the victim of violent crimes such as assault or rape.
- Put you in contact with the appropriate police authorities, and if you want us to, contact family members or friends.
- Help you understand the local criminal justice process and direct you to local attorneys, although it is important to remember that local authorities are responsible for investigating and prosecuting the crime. Under the best of circumstances, prosecution is very difficult (a fact some assailants appear to exploit knowingly), but no criminal investigation is possible without a formal complaint made directly to Mexican authorities.
The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in Mexico is “066”. Although there may be English-speaking operators available, to avoid delay it is best to seek the assistance of a Spanish speaker to place the call.
Please see our information on Victims of Crime, including possible victim compensation programs in the United States.
Local Laws & Special Circumstances
CRIMINAL PENALTIES: In Mexico, you are subject to Mexican laws and regulations. Foreign legal systems can be vastly different from our own, and may not afford the protections available to an individual under U.S. law. The legal process and typical investigation/prosecution timeline in Mexico is significantly different and longer from that in the United States, and procedures may vary from state to state. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Mexican laws, even unknowingly, may be deported, arrested, or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use or trafficking in illegal drugs are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. If you break the law, your U.S. citizenship will not help you avoid arrest or prosecution. It is very important to know what is legal and what is illegal wherever you go. Within this framework, U.S. consular officers provide certain services to U.S. citizens and their families, including information about local attorneys and advocacy to ensure fair and humane treatment.
Sex Crimes: Sexual exploitation of children or using or disseminating child pornography in Mexico or elsewhere overseas is a crime prosecutable in the United States. Soliciting sexual services of a minor is illegal in Mexico and is punishable by imprisonment. The Mexican government has an aggressive program to discourage sex tourism and routinely denies entry to U.S. citizens who are listed on sex offender registries.
Strict Firearms and Other Weapons Laws: The Mexican government has strict laws concerning the ownership of weapons. Mere possession of weapons by travelers is illegal in most cases. Possession of firearms is totally prohibited for weapons of types and calibers specified under Mexican law as for the exclusive use of the military. Possession of such prohibited firearms is a serious federal crime for which bail is unavailable. Weapons laws in Mexico vary by state, but it is also generally illegal to carry knives, daggers, brass knuckles, or weapons of any kind. Consular officers routinely provide assistance to U.S. citizens arrested for carrying pocket knives. More detailed information on the type of firearms in the category of prohibited weapons is given below.
Illegal firearms trafficking from the United States into Mexico is a major problem, and the Department of State warns all U.S. citizens against taking any firearm or ammunition into Mexico. Entering Mexico with a firearm, certain types of knives, or even a single round of ammunition is illegal, even if the weapon or ammunition is taken into Mexico unintentionally. The Mexican government strictly enforces laws restricting the importation of firearms and ammunition along all land borders and at airports and seaports, and authorities routinely x-ray incoming luggage. U.S. citizens entering Mexico with a weapon or any amount of ammunition, even accidentally, generally are detained and can be arrested and prosecuted. If convicted, they may face lengthy prison sentences. Travelers are strongly advised to thoroughly inspect all belongings prior to travel to Mexico to avoid the accidental importation of ammunition or firearms. For more information visit the websites for the Mexican Secretary of Defense and Mexican Customs.
The process for temporarily importing a hunting weapon or ammunition into Mexico is complicated and, if handled incorrectly, can result in imprisonment and confiscation of the weapon and ammunition. The U.S. Embassy in Mexico recommends prospective hunters retain the services of a licensed shooting or hunting club for help in importing any firearm or ammunition, which require separate permits. Bringing in any firearm without the necessary import permission will result in arrest, but bringing in a weapon identified by Mexican law as reserved for “the exclusive use of the Mexican military” will be dealt with severely. Conviction for bringing in a prohibited weapon can result in a long jail term. These prohibited weapons and calibers include fully automatic and semi-automatic handguns larger than .380 caliber, revolvers .357 Magnum and larger, rifles larger than .30 caliber, and shotguns larger than 12 gauge or with a barrel shorter than 25 inches. This listing is not inclusive, as rifles of less than .30 caliber can be considered prohibited. For more information about importing hunting weapons or ammunition into Mexico, contact the ANGADI (Asociación Nacional de Ganaderos Diversificados Criadores de Fauna) at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Vessels entering Mexican waters with firearms or ammunition on board must have a permit previously issued by the Mexican Embassy or a Mexican consulate. Mariners do not avoid prosecution by declaring their weapons at the port of entry. Before traveling, mariners who have obtained a Mexican firearm permit should contact Mexican port officials to receive guidance on the specific procedures used to report and secure weapons and ammunition.
Drug Penalties and Prescription Medications: Penalties for drug offenses are strict, and convicted offenders can expect large fines and jail sentences of up to 25 years. The purchase of controlled medications requires a prescription from a licensed Mexican physician. Some Mexican doctors have been arrested for writing prescriptions without due cause. In those instances, U.S. citizens who purchased the medications have been held in jail for months waiting for the Mexican judicial system to make a decision on their case. Marijuana prescriptions (or “medical marijuana”) are not valid in Mexico. Individuals in possession of a state medical marijuana license should remember that the license is not valid outside of the borders of that state, and bringing marijuana into Mexico – even if it is accompanied by a prescription – is considered international drug trafficking, a serious federal offense. The Mexican list of controlled medications differs from that of the United States, and Mexican public health laws concerning controlled medications are vague and often enforced selectively. To determine whether a particular medication is controlled in Mexico or requires a prescription, please consult the website of the Mexican Federal Commission for Protection against Health Risks (Comisión Federal para la Protección contra Riesgos Sanitarios - COFEPRIS).
The U.S. Embassy cautions that possession of any amount of prescription medication brought from the United States, including medications to treat HIV, and psychotropic drugs such as Valium, can result in arrest if Mexican authorities suspect abuse, or if the quantity of the prescription medication exceeds the amount required for several days' use. Individuals are advised to carry a copy of the prescription. If significant quantities of the medication are needed, individuals should carry a doctor's letter explaining that the quantity of medication is appropriate for their personal medical use.
Buying Prescription Drugs: Any drug classified by the Mexican government as a controlled medicine, including antibiotics, cannot be purchased without a Mexican prescription from a Mexico-licensed physician. Purchasing a controlled medicine without a valid prescription is a serious crime for both the purchaser and the seller. Purchasing a controlled medicine with a U.S. prescription is not sufficient and is also illegal, regardless of what the Mexican pharmacy may be willing to sell to the purchaser. By law, Mexican pharmacies cannot honor foreign prescriptions; purchasing a controlled medicine with a U.S. prescription is illegal regardless of whether the Mexican pharmacy is willing to sell to the purchaser. U.S. citizens have been arrested and their medicines confiscated by authorities when their prescriptions were written by a licensed U.S. physician and filled by a licensed Mexican pharmacist.
There have been cases of U.S. citizens buying prescription drugs in border cities. Those arrested are often held for the full 48 hours allowed by Mexican law without charges being filed. U.S. law enforcement officials believe that as many as 25 percent of the medications available in Mexico are counterfeit. Such counterfeit medication may be difficult to distinguish from real medication and can pose serious health risks to consumers. The importation of prescription drugs into the United States can be illegal in certain circumstances. U.S. law generally permits persons to enter the United States with only an immediate supply (i.e., enough for about one month) of a prescription medication.
Criminal Penalties for Possession: Recent media reports have inaccurately described changes to Mexico’s laws regarding possession of controlled substances, including making blanket statements that new laws allow the possession of drugs for personal use. These reports may contain major inaccuracies about current drug enforcement policies and criminal penalties for possession currently in force. Additionally, the new drug laws include stiffer penalties for many drug offenses, and the sale and distribution of drugs continues to be illegal in Mexico. U.S. citizens should avoid the possession or use of all controlled substances to avoid possible prosecution under Mexican law.
Importing Medicines into Mexico: Medications for personal use are not subject to duty when hand-carried into Mexico. Individuals are advised to carry a copy of their prescriptions in the event they are asked to prove that the medicines are for personal use. To ship (import) prescription medication into Mexico for personal use, a foreigner must obtain a permit from the Mexican Health Department prior to importing the medicine. For a fee, a customs broker can process the permit on behalf of an individual. If using the services of a customs broker, it is advisable to agree upon the fees before telling the broker to proceed. Current listings of local customs brokers (agencias aduanales) are available in the Mexico City yellow pages.
Arrests and Notifications: The Mexican government is required by international law to notify the U.S. Embassy or the nearest U.S. consulate promptly when a U.S. citizen is arrested, if the arrestee so requests. Please note that this requirement does not apply to dual nationals, as the Mexican government considers them Mexican citizens. In practice, however, depending on where the arrest takes place, this notification can be extremely slow, or may never occur at all, limiting the assistance the U.S. Government can provide. U.S. citizens should promptly identify themselves as such to the arresting officers, and should request that the Embassy or nearest consulate be notified immediately. U.S. citizens should be wary of unconfirmed claims of arrest or detention. The “grandparent scam,” described above in the Harassment/Extortion section, is a scam in which a U.S. citizen is alleged to be detained by authorities in Mexico in an attempt to get relatives in the United States to wire money. Confirm an alleged detention or arrest with the Embassy or consulate before taking any other action.
Prison Facilities: Prison conditions in Mexico are significantly worse than in the United States. In many facilities, food is insufficient in both quantity and quality, and prisoners must pay for adequate nutrition from their own funds. Many Mexican prisons provide sub-standard medical care, and prisoners with urgent medical conditions may receive only a minimum of attention. U.S. citizens are sometimes forced to pay hundreds and even thousands of dollars in “protection money” to fellow prisoners.
Prisoner Treatment/Interrogations: Mexico is party to several international anti-torture conventions, and both the Mexican Constitution and Mexican law prohibit torture. However, U.S. citizens have reported being beaten, sexually assaulted, and subjected to severe interrogation techniques while in the custody of Mexican security forces. In its annual report, Mexico's National Commission on Human Rights documents cases of Mexican security forces using torture as a means to obtain information or coerce a confession. Convictions of security forces for torture or other alleged abuses are rare.
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: Weather conditions vary as they do in the United States. From June to November, the country may experience strong winds or rain as a result of tropical storms in the Gulf of Mexico or along the Pacific Coast. Some areas may experience earthquakes. It is prudent to leave a detailed itinerary, including local contact information and expected time and date of return, with a friend or family member, as well as sign up for the Smart Traveler Enrollment Program (STEP).
Water Sports: Visitors to Mexico should assess the potential risks of recreational activities. Recreational facilities may not meet U.S. safety or sanitation standards. Swimming pool drain systems may not comply with U.S. safety standards, and swimmers should exercise caution. Several U.S. citizens have died in hotel pools in recent years. Do not swim in pools or at beaches without lifeguards. Parents should watch children closely when they are in or around water. U.S. citizens have drowned or disappeared at Mexican beaches.
Warning flags on beaches should be taken seriously. If black or red flags are up, do not enter the water. In Cancun, there is often a very strong undertow along the beach running from the Hyatt Regency all the way south to Club Med. Several drowning and near-drowning incidents have been reported on the east coast of Cozumel, particularly in the Playa San Martin-Chen Rio area. In Acapulco, avoid swimming outside the bay area. Several U.S. citizens have died while swimming in rough surf at the Revolcadero Beach near Acapulco. Despite the presence of U.S.-trained lifeguards, several U.S. citizens have drowned in the area of Zipolite Beach in Puerto Angel, Oaxaca, because of sudden waves and strong currents. Beaches on the Pacific side of the Baja California peninsula at Cabo San Lucas can be dangerous due to rip tides and rogue waves. Beaches may not be well-marked, and strong currents could lead to dangerous conditions for even the most experienced swimmers. Swimmers, waders, and even people simply walking along the beaches have been washed into the ocean by rogue waves. Several have drowned and others have disappeared. Surfers and other water sports enthusiasts should always inquire about local conditions before going into the water. Do not swim alone in isolated beach areas. Do not dive into unknown bodies of water, because hidden rocks or shallow depths can cause serious injury or death.
Rented sports and aquatic equipment may not meet U.S. safety standards or be covered by any accident insurance. Scuba diving equipment may be substandard or defective due to frequent use. Inexperienced scuba divers in particular should beware of dive shops that promise to “certify” you after only a few hours' instruction. There are several hospitals and medical centers with hyperbaric decompression chambers to treat the effects of nitrogen narcosis (commonly referred to as the “bends”) in Mexico. These tend to be in large cities and near tourist destinations where scuba diving is common, such as the Yucatan Peninsula. Please note you will be expected to pay for service up front and likely in cash. A number of tourists have died in parasailing accidents after being dragged through palm trees or slammed into buildings. U.S. citizen tourists have also been killed in jet-ski accidents, especially in group outings when inexperienced guides allowed clients to follow each other too closely. Vacationers at beach resorts have had accidents involving rented jet-skis. Following such accidents, there have been cases of mobs gathering to prevent tourists from departing the scene and to intimidate them into paying exorbitant damage claims.
Boats used for excursions may not carry adequate life jackets, radios, or tools to make repairs and may not be covered by accident insurance. Mariners preparing to depart from a Mexican harbor should visit the harbormaster and leave a detailed trip plan, including intended destination and crew and passenger information.
Resort Areas and Spring Break: Millions of U.S. citizens visit Mexican beach resorts each year, especially during "spring break" season. Excessive alcohol consumption is a significant problem. The legal drinking age in Mexico is 18, but it is not uniformly enforced. Alcohol is implicated in the majority of arrests, violent crimes, accidents, and deaths involving U.S. citizen tourists. See also the section above entitled “Sexual Assault.”
Mountain Climbing and Hiking: Travelers who wish to climb Pico de Orizaba in Veracruz should be aware that summer droughts in recent years have removed much of the snow coating and turned the Jamapa Glacier into a high-speed ice chute, increasing the risk of death or serious injury. At least 17 climbers have died on the mountain and dozens have been injured in recent years. Rescue teams operate without the benefit of sophisticated equipment. Any medical treatment provided in local hospitals or clinics must be paid in cash. While guides are not required, the U.S. Embassy recommends hiring an experienced guide.
The Popocatepetl Volcano, located 40 miles southeast of Mexico City, and the Colima Volcano (Volcan de Fuego), located approximately 20 miles north-northeast of Colima city in the state of Colima on the southwestern coast, are two of the most active volcanoes in Mexico. The area surrounding Popocatepetl has been declared off-limits by the Mexican government and the area surrounding the Colima Volcano has also been declared off limits at times. When visiting volcanoes, stay in designated tourist areas and observe all safety recommendations from the Mexican Proteccion Civil that monitors the conditions. Ash emitted from these volcanoes can cause respiratory problems and can occasionally disrupt air travel.
When visiting backcountry areas to hike or climb, it is prudent to leave a detailed itinerary, including route information and expected time and date of return, with your hotel clerk or a friend or family member.
Marriage and Divorce Requirements in Mexico: Marriage laws in Mexico vary from state to state. In general, to marry a Mexican national in Mexico, a U.S. citizen must be physically present in Mexico and present any documents required in the local jurisdiction where the marriage will take place. U.S. citizens who marry U.S. citizens or other non-Mexicans are not subject to a residence requirement but are required to present their tourist cards. For more detailed information on marriage in Mexico, contact the Mexican Embassy or nearest consulate. Divorce requirements vary by jurisdiction. U.S. citizens should consult an attorney and/or the Mexican Embassy or nearest consulate for information on Mexican divorce requirements.
Real Estate and Time Shares: You should be aware of the risks inherent in purchasing real estate in Mexico and should exercise extreme caution before entering into any form of commitment to invest in property there. Mexican law and practice regarding real estate differ substantially from the United States. Foreigners who purchase property may find that property disputes with Mexican citizens may not be treated evenhandedly by law enforcement authorities or the courts. Consumers should consult a Mexican attorney before undertaking a real estate transaction.
U.S. citizens should exercise caution when considering time-share investments and be aware of the aggressive tactics used by some time-share sales representatives. Buyers should be fully informed and take sufficient time to consider their decisions before signing time-share contracts, ideally after consulting an attorney. Mexican law allows time-share purchasers five days to cancel the contract for unconditional and full reimbursement. U.S. citizens should never sign a contract that includes clauses penalizing a buyer who cancels within five days. Mexican time-share companies cannot be sued in U.S. courts unless they have an office or other business presence in the United States. The Department of State frequently receives complaints from U.S. citizens about extremely aggressive sales tactics, exaggerated claims of return on investment, lack of customer service, and questionable business practices by time-share companies, resulting in substantial financial losses for time-share investors.
A formal complaint against any merchant should be filed with PROFECO, Mexico's federal consumer protection agency. PROFECO has the power to mediate disputes, investigate consumer complaints, order hearings, levy fines and sanctions for not appearing at hearings, and do price-check inspections of merchants. All complaints by U.S. citizens are handled by PROFECO's English-speaking office in Mexico City at 011-52-55-5211-1723 (phone), 011-52-55-5211-2052 (fax), or via email. For more information, please see the PROFECO website.
Ownership Restrictions: Under current Mexican real estate law, investment restrictions prohibit foreigners from acquiring title to residential real estate in so-called "restricted zones" within 50 kilometers (approximately 30 miles) of the nation's coast and 100 kilometers (approximately 60 miles) of the borders. In all, the restricted zones total about 40% of Mexico's territory. Nevertheless, foreigners may acquire the effective use of residential property in the restricted zones through the establishment of a 50-year extendable trust (called a fideicomiso) arranged through a Mexican financial institution that acts as trustee.
Under a fideicomiso, the foreign investor obtains all rights of use of the property, including the right to develop, sell and transfer the property. Real estate investors should, however, be careful in performing due diligence to ensure that there are no other claimants to the property being purchased. Fideicomiso arrangements have led to legal challenges in some cases. U.S. issued title insurance is available in Mexico, and a few major U.S. title insurers have begun operations there. Additionally, U.S. lending institutions have begun issuing mortgages to U.S. citizens purchasing real estate in Mexico.
Labor Laws: U.S. citizen property owners should consult legal counsel or local authorities before hiring employees to work in their homes or on their vessels moored in Mexico. Several U.S. citizen property owners have been sued for failure to comply with Mexican labor laws regarding severance pay and Mexican social security benefits.
Human Smuggling and Trafficking: Mexican authorities may prosecute anyone arrested for trafficking or smuggling of people into or out of Mexico.
LGBT RIGHTS: Mexican law prohibits discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals; however, LGBT persons report that the government does not always investigate and punish those complicit in abuses. Discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity remains, despite a growing public acceptance of LGBT individuals. U.S. citizens should exercise discretion in identifying themselves publicly as LGBT. For more detailed information about LGBT rights in Mexico, you may review the State Department’s annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices. For further information on LGBT travel, please read our LGBT Travel Information page.
ACCESSIBILITY: Individuals with disabilities may find accessibility and accommodation very different from what they find in the United States. Mexican law prohibits discrimination against persons with physical, sensory, intellectual, and mental disabilities in employment, education, air travel and other transportation, access to health care, and the provision of other services. However, the law is not effectively enforced. Public buildings and facilities continue to be in noncompliance with the law requiring access for persons with disabilities, as do most hotels and other tourist facilities. U.S. citizens with disabilities should consult individual hotels and facilities in advance of travel to ensure they are accessible.
Adequate medical care is available in major cities. Excellent health facilities are available in Mexico City, but training and availability of emergency responders may be below U.S. standards. Care in more remote areas is limited. Standards of medical training, patient care, and business practices vary greatly among medical facilities in beach resorts throughout Mexico.
In recent years, some U.S. citizens have complained that certain health-care facilities in beach resorts have taken advantage of them by overcharging or providing unnecessary medical care. A significant number of complaints have been lodged against some of the private hospitals in the Cabo San Lucas area, including complaints about price gouging and various unlawful and/or unethical pricing schemes and collection measures. Additionally, U.S. citizens should be aware that many Mexican facilities require payment “up front” prior to performing a procedure. Hospitals in Mexico do not accept U.S. domestic health insurance or Medicare/Medicaid and will expect payment via cash, credit, debit card, or bank transfer. Elective medical procedures may be less expensive than in the United States, but providers may not adhere to U.S. standards. Additionally, visitors are cautioned that facilities may lack access to sufficient emergency support. The U.S. Embassy encourages visitors to obtain as much information about the facility and the medical personnel as possible when considering surgical or other procedures, and when possible, patients should travel with a family member or another responsible party.
In addition to other publicly available information, a list of doctors and hospitals is available from the nearest Embassy or consulate’s website. Before beginning international travel, U.S. citizens should consider purchasing emergency medical evacuation insurance, check with their health care providers to see if the cost for medical treatment outside the U.S. is covered, and inquire about the reimbursement process.
Water Quality: In many areas in Mexico, tap water is not potable. Bottled water and beverages are safe, although visitors should be aware that many restaurants and hotels serve tap water unless bottled water is specifically requested. Ice may also come from tap water and should be avoided. Visitors should exercise caution when buying food or beverages from street vendors.
The quality of water along some beaches in or near Acapulco or other large coastal communities may be unsafe for swimming because of pollution. Swimming in contaminated water may cause diarrhea and/or other illnesses. Mexican government agencies monitor water quality in public beach areas, but their standards and sampling techniques may differ from those in the United States.
Altitude: In high-altitude areas like Mexico City (elevation 7,600 feet, approximately 1.5 miles above sea level); most people need a short adjustment period as long as several days. Symptoms of reaction to high altitude include a lack of energy, shortness of breath, occasional dizziness, headache, and insomnia. Those with heart problems should consult their doctor before traveling. Air pollution in Mexico City and Guadalajara is severe, especially from December to May, and combined with high altitude could affect travelers with underlying respiratory problems.
Chikungunya and Dengue Fever: Chikungunya and Dengue are mosquito-borne illnesses that are becoming more frequent in tropical and equatorial climates around the world. Symptoms can include fever, rash, severe headache, joint pain, and muscle or bone pain. There are no specific treatments for Chikungunya or Dengue, and vaccines are still in the developmental phase. Preventing mosquito bites is the most important way to prevent these illnesses. Avoidance and prevention techniques include reducing mosquito exposure by using repellents, covering exposed skin, treating clothing and tents with permethrin, and sleeping in screened or air conditioned rooms. You can also reduce exposure through mosquito control measures, including emptying water from outdoor containers and spraying to reduce mosquito populations. The Aedes mosquitos that carry these illnesses are primarily day biting and often live in homes and hotel rooms especially under beds, in bathrooms and closets. Travelers should carry and use CDC recommended insect repellents containing either 20% DEET, picaridin, oil of lemon eucalyptus or IR3535, which will help diminish bites from mosquitoes as well as ticks, fleas, chiggers, etc., some of which may also carry infectious diseases. For further information, please consult the CDC's Chikungunya Virus Website and Dengue Virus Website.
Other Health Issues: You can find detailed information on vaccinations and other health precautions for Mexico on the CDC’s website. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad, consult the World Health Organization (WHO) website, which contains additional health information for travelers, including detailed country-specific health information.
Travel & Transportation
TRAFFIC SAFTEY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in Mexico, you may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Mexico is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance. Public transportation vehicles, specifically taxis and city buses, often do not comply with traffic regulations, including observing speed limits and stopping at red lights.
Continued concerns regarding criminal activity on highways along the Mexican border (which includes placement of illegal checkpoints and the murder of persons who do not stop and/or surrender their vehicles) have prompted the U.S. Mission in Mexico to impose certain restrictions on U.S. government employees transiting the area. Effective July 15, 2010, U.S. government employees cannot drive from the U.S.-Mexico border to or from any post in the interior of Mexico or to and from Central America. This policy does not apply to employees traveling to border posts (Tijuana, Nogales, Ciudad Juarez, Nuevo Laredo, and Matamoros) from the United States or to travel between Hermosillo and Nogales.
Driving and Vehicle Regulations: U.S. driver's licenses are valid in Mexico. Mexican law requires that only owners drive their vehicles, or that the owner be inside the vehicle. If not, the vehicle may be seized by Mexican customs and will not be returned under any circumstances. The Government of Mexico strictly regulates the entry of vehicles into Mexico. Traffic laws in Mexico are sporadically enforced and, therefore, often ignored by drivers, creating dangerous conditions for drivers and pedestrians. Driving under the influence of alcohol is illegal in all parts of Mexico. Using a mobile device (such as a cell phone) is also prohibited while driving in many parts of Mexico, including Mexico City, and violators may be fined.
Insurance: Mexican insurance is required for all vehicles, including rental vehicles. Mexican auto insurance is sold in most cities and towns on both sides of the border. U.S. automobile liability insurance is not valid in Mexico, nor is most collision and comprehensive coverage issued by U.S. companies. Motor vehicle insurance is considered invalid in Mexico if the driver is found to be under the influence of alcohol or drugs.
Road Emergencies and Automobile Accidents: Motor vehicle accidents are a leading cause of death of U.S. citizens in Mexico. Motorists should exercise caution and remain alert on all Mexican roads. If you have an emergency while driving, the equivalent of “911” in Mexico is “066”, but this number is not always answered. If you are driving on a toll highway (or “cuota”), or any other major highway, you may contact the Green Angels (Angeles Verdes), a fleet of trucks with bilingual crews. The Green Angels may be reached directly at (01) (55) 5250-8221. If you are unable to call them, pull off to the side of the road and lift the hood of your car; chances are that a patrolling crew will find you.
If you are involved in an automobile accident, you may be taken into police custody until it can be determined who is liable and whether you have the ability to pay any penalty. If you do not have Mexican liability insurance, you may be prevented from departing the country even if you require life-saving medical care, and you are almost certain to spend some time in jail until all parties are satisfied that responsibility has been assigned and adequate financial satisfaction received. Drivers may face criminal charges if injuries or damages are serious.
Road Safety: Avoid driving on Mexican highways at night. Even multi-lane expressways in Mexico often have narrow lanes and steep shoulders. Single-vehicle rollover accidents are common, often resulting in death or serious injury to vehicle occupants. Use extreme caution when approaching towns, driving on curves, and passing large trucks. Wear seatbelts at all times. Criminal assaults have occurred on highways throughout Mexico; travelers should exercise extreme caution at all times and should use toll (“cuota”) roads rather than the less secure “free” (“libre”) roads whenever possible. Always keep car doors locked and windows up while driving, whether on the highway or in town. While in heavy traffic, or stopped in traffic, leave enough room between vehicles to maneuver and escape, if necessary. In addition, U.S. citizens should not hitchhike or accept rides from or offer rides to strangers anywhere in Mexico. Please refer to our Road Safety Page for more information.
Vehicular traffic in Mexico City is restricted in order to reduce air pollution. The restriction is based on the last digit of the vehicle license plate. This applies equally to permanent, temporary, and foreign (U.S.) plates. For additional information, refer to the Hoy No Circula website (Spanish only) maintained by the Mexico City government.
In recent years, moped rentals have become very widespread in Cancun and Cozumel, and the number of serious moped accidents has risen accordingly. Most operators carry no insurance and do not conduct safety checks. The U.S. Embassy recommends avoiding operators who do not provide a helmet with the rental. Some operators have been known to demand fees many times in excess of damages caused to the vehicles, even if renters have purchased insurance in advance.
For additional information concerning Mexican driver’s permits, vehicle inspection, road tax, mandatory insurance, etc., please telephone the Mexican Secretariat of Tourism (SECTUR) at 1-800-44-MEXICO (639-426). Travelers can also consult MexOnline for further information regarding vehicle inspection and importation procedures. For detailed information in Spanish only, visit Mexican Customs’ website Importación Temporal de Vehículos (“Temporary Importation of Vehicles”). Travelers are advised to consult with the Mexican Embassy or the nearest Mexican consulate for additional, detailed information prior to entering Mexico.
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the government of Mexico's Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Mexico's air carrier operations. Further information may be found on the FAA safety assessment page.
Maritime Safety Oversight: The Mexican maritime industry, including charter fishing and recreational vessels, is subject solely to Mexican safety regulations. Travelers should be aware that Mexican equipment and vessels may not meet U.S. safety standards or be covered by any accident insurance.
Assistance for U.S. Citizens
U.S. Embassy Mexico City
Paseo de la Reforma 305
Mexico, D.F., Mexico C.P. 06500
- Telephone +(52)(55) 5080-2000
- Emergency After-Hours Telephone +(52)(55) 5080-2000, ext. 0 / (01)(55) 5080-2000, ext. 0 (within Mexico) /5080-2000 (within Mexico City)
- Fax +(52)(55) 5080-2201
- Email email@example.com
- U.S. Embassy Mexico City